Basic Science Guides for JSS 2 Living and Non Living Things

 

TEACHING AREA – Changes in Living Things, Changes in Matter, Changes in Non Living Things, Habits of Living Things, Human Circulatory System, Digestive System, Respiratory System, Excretory System, Reproductive System, Skeleton System and Movement and Uniqueness of Man

 

BASIC SCIENCE 

THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS 

TOPIC 1 – CHANGES IN LIVING THINGS 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Posters showing:

  • babies
  • students
  • teachers and parents

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. recognize increase in height, weight and size as growth changes.

2. recognize transition from infancy to adolescence and adulthood as developmental changes.

 

3. identify the characteristic features of the different developmental stages.

4. group the growth and developmental changes as temporary or permanent changes.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Growth changes in,

  • height
  • weight
  • size

2. Developmental changes,

  • infancy
  • adolescents
  • adulthood

3. Characteristic features of stages of development

4. Classifying growth and developmental changes as temporary or permanent changes

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. selects students of different heights, weights and sizes to stand before the class.

2. leads other students to group them according to the criteria above.

3. leads class discussion on the differences between:

  • infants and adolescents
  • adolescents and adults

4. guides students to: group growth and developmental changes as temporary or permanent changes.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. participate in discussions.

2. under teacher’s instruction, group selected students according to height, weight and size.

3. compare –

  • themselves with their baby brothers and sisters at home
  • themselves with their teacher and parents.

4. write short notes on their observation.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. list any three growth changes in living things.

2. list three examples of developmental changes in infants, adolescents and adults.

3. state the characteristics of growth and developmental changes.

4. classify changes in living things as,

  • growth and developmental changes.
  • temporary and permanent changes.

 

BASIC SCIENCE 

THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS 

TOPIC 2 – CHANGES IN MATTER 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Ice block

2. Common salts

3. Water

4. Bunsen burner

5. Tripod stand

6. Beaker, etc.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

 

1. describe different ways matter changes.

2. identify the changes as temporary or permanent.

3. distinguish between temporary and permanent changes.

4. state the causes of such changes.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Types of Changes (permanent/temporary)

2. Characteristics of temporary and permanent changes.

3. Examples of temporary/permanent changes.

4. Causes of changes in matter

  • heat
  • chemical reaction, etc.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

 

1. brings materials to class to demonstrate changes.

2. guides class discussion on:

  •  types of change
  • characteristics of temporary and permanent changes.

3. leads students to recognize the differences between temporary and permanent changes.

4. guides students to recognize causes of changes in matter.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. participate in discussions.

2. in groups, carry out experiments to demonstrate the process of change.

3. write short sentences to describe their observations during the demonstration.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. list two ways by which changes in matter can occur.

2. state the two types of changes.

3. list two differences between temporary and permanent change.

4. state the factors that bring about temporary and permanent changes.

 

BASIC SCIENCE 

THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS 

TOPIC 3 – CHANGES IN NON LIVING THINGS 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Candle sticks

2. Ice blocks

3. Firewood

4. Kerosene

5. Matches

6. Bunsen burner

7. Tripod stand

8. Cubes of sugar

9. Beaker

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

 

1. observe and describe changes in non-living matter.

2. group such changes as physical or chemical.

3. state the characteristics of physical and chemical changes.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Types of changes – physical and chemical changes.

2. Characteristics of physical and chemical changes.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. leads discussion on changes in non-living matter; examples of physical and chemical changes.

2. demonstrates physical and chemical changes.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. participate in discussions.

2. give examples of physical and chemical changes.

3. perform activities that lead to changes in non-living things.

4. classify such changes as physical and chemical changes, e.g. burning of wood or candle.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. state two changes which occur in non-living matter.

2. identify physical and chemical changes.

3. list three differences between physical and chemical changes.

 

BASIC SCIENCE 

THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS 

TOPIC 4 – LIVING THINGS (HABITAT) 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts

2. Diagrams

3. School garden

4. Video clips

5. Plastics/metal containers

6. Polythene bags

7. Preservatives e.g. formalin

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. mention the different habitats of living things.

2. identify the living organisms found in different habitats.

3. list the distinguishing characteristics of organisms found in the different habitats (land, air, water).

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Habitat

Examples of habitats – land, water and air.

2. Adaptations of living things to their habitats.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. takes students to visit different habitats.

2. guides students to,

  • identify living organisms in different habitats
  • identify the special features (adaptations) of the organisms found in the different habitats.

3. guides and directs cl

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

 

1. visit the various habitats and observe the living things in them.

2. participate in class discussion.

3. classify living things based on where they live.

4. collect and preserve some living organisms.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. name three major habitats.

2. give examples of living things found in different habitats.

3. state three differences between,

  • plants found on land and in water.
  • animals that live on land and in water.

 

BASIC SCIENCE 

THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS 

TOPIC 5 – HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts

2. Paper

3. Pencil

4. Models

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify the organs of the circulatory system.

2. recognize how the organs work and relate to other systems.

3. describe the main functions of the heart and vessels.

4. mention blood diseases and significance of blood tests.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Parts of the circulatory system

2. Simple structure and functions of the heart and blood vessels

3. Importance of the circulatory system

4. Blood defects and diseases

5. Importance of blood test and blood groupings e.g. HIV/AIDS, sickle cell anaemia

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

 

1. illustrates the circulatory system using charts and models.

2. leads discussions on the heart and its function in the circulatory system.

3. encourages students to find out their blood groups.

4. leads discussion on blood diseases and their clinical identification.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. trace blood flow in the circulatory system (pencil paper activity).

2. examine charts/models of heart and blood vessels.

3. collect data on their blood group.

4. participate in discussion on blood diseases and significance of blood tests.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. list the main parts of the circulatory system.

2. draw and label a simple structure of the heart, arteries and veins.

3. list functions of the circulatory system.

4. discuss one blood disease common among youths today.

5. name their blood group and genotype.

 

BASIC SCIENCE 

THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS 

TOPIC 6 – DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts

2. Models

3. Preserved specimens of alimentary system

4. Chicken/pigeon

5. Test tubes and reagents for testing carbohydrates, proteins and oils/fats

6. Bunsen burner, etc.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

 

1. identify parts of the alimentary system and the roles they play in digestion.

2. describe digestion and absorption processes.

3. describe the chemical nature of food.

4. perform simple food tests.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Parts of the digestive system from the mouth to the anus

2. Digestion process at various stages

3. Absorption of food

4. Simple food test

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. uses charts, models or preserved specimens to describe alimentary system.

2. dissects a chicken to display its alimentary system for student’s observation.

3. leads discussion on the process of digestion and absorption of food.

4. provides materials

for simple food tests.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

 

1. examine charts, models or present specimens of the alimentary system.

2. observe displayed alimentary system.

3. participate in discussion and write down points on digestion and absorption of food.

4. carry out simple food tests.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. draw and label parts of the alimentary system.

2. describe the process of digestion in the mouth.

3. mention the end products of carbohydrates and protein digestion.

4. mention materials and reagents for carrying out food tests.

5. give the results of remaining food items.

 

BASIC SCIENCE 

THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS 

TOPIC 7 – EXCRETORY SYSTEM 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts

2. Models

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. name the excretory organs.

2. describe how the organs work.

3. discuss the need to excrete.

4. define an excretory waste.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Excretory organs and their functions.

2. Excretion and the need for it.

3. Excretory products.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. leads discussion on the need to eliminate wastes and different types of waste.

2. uses models and charts to guide students to explain the actions of the kidney, skin, sweat glands and lungs as excretory organs.

 

3. uses models and charts to describe the structure and function of the kidney, skin and lungs.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. participate in the discussion.

2. study charts and models of excretory organs and draw the structures.

3. identify different types of excretory wastes.

4. state the functions of the excretory organs.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. participate in the discussion.

2. study charts and models of excretory organs and draw the structures.

3. identify different types of excretory wastes.

4. state the functions of the excretory organs.

 

BASIC SCIENCE 

THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS 

TOPIC 8 – HUMAN BODY (REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM) 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts

2. Models

3. Paper

4. Pencil

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify the parts of the reproductive system.

2. explain puberty and recognize secondary sexual changes.

3. explain how reproduction preserves species.

4. define reproduction.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Parts of the reproductive system (male and female) and their functions

2. Puberty – secondary sexual characteristics

3. Importance of reproduction

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

 

1. leads discussion on the significance of reproduction for the preservation of species.

2. guides discussion on changes that accompany puberty in boys and girls and the attendant responsibilities of these changes.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. participate in the discussion on the importance of reproduction.

2. identify parts of the reproductive system and their functions.

3. participate in the discussion on changes that accompany puberty and recognize the attendant psycho-social responsibilities.

4. compose their own definition of reproduction.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. name the main parts of human reproductive systems.

2. list four secondary sexual changes in boys and girls.

3. state the importance of reproduction.

4. write your own definition of reproduction.

 

BASIC SCIENCE 

THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS 

TOPIC 9 – RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts and models

2. Balloons

3. Stop watch

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify parts of the respiratory system.

2. distinguish between breathing and respiration.

3. discover that pulse rate and breathing rate increase with exercise.

4. identify breathing problems.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Parts of the respiratory system

2. Functions of the respiratory system – breathing

3. Respiratory problems connected with breathing, e.g. asthma

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. illustrates breathing using models/charts, etc.

2. guides students to identify parts involved in breathing e.g. exercise.

3. discusses factors affecting breathing e.g. exercise.

4. guides students to measure their pulse and breathing rate before and after exercise.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. observe illustration.

2. carry out activity of breathing in and out.

3. identify parts responsible for breathing.

4. measure pulse rate and breathing rate before and after exercise.

5. discuss breathing problems.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. list the parts involved in breathing.

2. distinguish between breathing and respiration.

3. explain the differences in the breathing rate before and after exercise.

4. name two respiratory problems.

 

BASIC SCIENCE 

THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS 

TOPIC 10 – SKELETAL SYSTEM AND MOVEMENT

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Model of the skeletal system

2. Charts

3. The learners

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify the parts of the body responsible for movement.

2. observe how the bones are put together to functions

 

3. name the components of joints.

4. describe the importance of movement to human beings.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Parts of the body responsible for movement: bones, joint/muscles

2. Reasons why human beings move

3. Importance of movement to human beings

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. provides a model of human skeletal system.

2. guides students to name, feel and count bones of the body.

3. leads discussion on the functions of the skeletal system and joint in aiding movement.

4. leads students to list why human beings need to move.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. study the model of the human skeleton.

2. feel, name and count the bones of the body.

 

3. participate in discussions and illustrate movement in various directions.

4. participate in class discussion to list benefits of being able to move about.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. identify the parts of the body responsible for movement.

2. explain how the bone and muscle work together for movement.

3. state 3 reasons why human beings need to move about.

 

BASIC SCIENCE 

THEME – LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS 

TOPIC 11 – UNIQUENESS OF MAN 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Film on human exploits

2. Pictures

3. Model

4. Chart

5. Meter rule

6. Clock

 

7. Weighing scale

8. Spring balance

9. Measuring cylinder

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. describe intelligence as a characteristic of human beings.

2. list the uses of intelligence to human beings.

3. apply basic intelligence skills e.g. observation, measurement of time and weight, inference.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Uniqueness of human beings:

  • reasoning
  • problem solving.

2. Intelligence skills, inquisitiveness, observation, measurement, inference, etc.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

 

1. leads discussion on the importance of the brain, human reasoning and intelligence.

2. guides students discussion on the use of intelligence for survival and manipulating the environment.

3. using appropriate instruments, guides students

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. participate in discussions.

2. follow teacher’s instruction to carry out listed measurements.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. explain why man is unique among living things.

2. use their intelligence to solve a problem e.g. how many teaspoons full of water will fill a bottle of coke?

 

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