# Basic Science Guides for JSS 2 You and Energy

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND ENERGY

###### TOPIC 1 – EFFICIENCY OF SIMPLE MACHINES

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Samples of simple machines

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain the meaning of efficiency.

2. state that no machine is hundred percent efficient.

3. state ways of maintaining a machine.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

1. Efficiency of a machine

2. Level of efficiency of a machine

3. Care of the machine

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. leads discussion on the efficiency of a machine.

2. leads discussion on reasons why no machine is hundred percent efficient.

3. leads discussion on problems of machines and their solutions.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. participate in the discussion and relate it to the work done by a machine.

2. participate and note some of the reasons why a machine is not 100% efficient e.g. friction, wear and tear.

3. participate and note the main ideas.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. define efficiency.

2. state why no machine is hundred percent efficient.

3. state two ways of taking care of a machine.

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND TECHNOLOGY

###### TOPIC 2 – KINETIC ENERGY

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts to guide discussion

2. Charts of molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases

3. Beaker (2)

4. Water

5. Ether

6. Capillary tube

7. Source of heat

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state the assumptions of the kinetic theory.

2. explain the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases using the kinetic theory.

3. distinguish between boiling and evaporation using the kinetic theory.

4. state the factors that affect evaporation.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. directs discussion on the statements of the kinetic theory.

2. provides charts of molecular structure (solids, liquids and gases) and leads the discussion.

3. guides students to carry out activity on boiling and evaporation and discuss findings.

4. guides students to deduce some factors that affect evaporation.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. participate in the discussion and note the major explanations.

2. participate in the discussion and discover molecular spacing as major differences between solids, liquids and gases.

3. use water and ether respectively for activities on evaporation and boiling and participate in discussing their results.

4. deduce the factors that affect evaporation from their observation.

LESSON PRESENTATION

1. state three statements of kinetic theory.

2. use the kinetic theory to explain why a solid has a definite shape while a liquid does not.

3. state the difference between boiling and evaporation.

4. state two factors that affect evaporation.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state three statements of kinetic theory.

2. use the kinetic theory to explain why a solid has a definite shape while a liquid does not.

3. state the difference between boiling and evaporation.

4. state two factors that affect evaporation.

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND ENERGY

###### TOPIC 3 – SIMPLE MACHINES: GEARS

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Charts or pictures of the gear

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. describe gears.

2. state the uses of gears.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

1. Description of gears

2. Application of gears

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. leads discussion on the description of gears.

2. discusses the uses of gears with students.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. participate in the discussion and note the way gears work.

2. participate in the discussion.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. describe how gears work.

2. state two uses of gears.

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND ENERGY

###### TOPIC 4 – SIMPLE Machines – THE SCREW THREAD

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Car jack or chart or picture of a screw thread

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify the parts of a screw thread.

2. describe how a screw thread works.

3. state the uses of a screw thread.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

1. Parts of a screw thread

2. Operation of a screw thread

3. Uses of a screw thread

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. guides students to identify the parts of the screw thread.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. identify the parts of a screw thread.

2. describe and note the operation of a screw thread.

3. participate in the discussion and note the major uses of the machine.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. identify the parts of a screw thread.

2. describe and note the operation of a screw thread.

3. participate in the discussion and note the major uses of the machine.

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND ENERGY

###### TOPIC 5 – SIMPLE MACHINES – WHEELS AND AXLE

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Opener

2. Scissors

3. Broom

4. Charts or picture of wheel and axle

5. Brace and bits, screw driver and door knob (class may visit a carpenter’s workshop)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain the meaning of simple machines.

2. describe the operation of wheel and axle.

3. identify and describe the wheels and axle.

4. give examples of wheel and axle.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

1. Meaning of simple machine

2. Wheel and axle

3. Examples of wheel and axle

4. Operation of wheel and axle

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. provides examples of simple machines.

2. leads discussion on the operation of the wheel and axle.

3. guides students to identify the applications of wheel and axle.

4. provides some examples of wheel and axle.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. use simple machines e.g. broom to sweep, spoon to eat, opener to open bottles.

2. participate in the discussion and try to use the machines.

3. identify the applications of wheel and axle.

4. observe brace and bits, a screw driver, door knobs and cam shaft as examples.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. explain the meaning of simple machine.

2. describe how the wheel and axle work.

3. state an application of wheel and axle.

4. give two examples of wheel and axle.

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND ENERGY

###### TOPIC 6 – THERMAL ENERGY

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Source of heat – iron rod

2. Metal spoon

3. Beaker

4. Water

5. Hot water

6. Two cans – one painted black

7. Two thermometers

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. illustrate that when two bodies are in contact, heat flows from the hot to the cold one.

2. name the methods of heat transfer.

3. describe heat conduction and its applications.

4. describe heat convection and state two of its applications.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

1. Heat Flow

2. Heat transfer:

• conduction
• convection

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. guides students to illustrate thermal energy with an activity.

2. guides the illustration of heat transfer.

3. guides students in activity on heat conduction and discuss the uses with them.

4. guides students in activity on convection and on convection and discuss its application.

5. guides students to carry out activity for radiation and discuss its applications.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. heat one end of iron rod while holding the other. Note that the palm gets warm with time.

2. discover that heat is transferred by conduction, convection and radiation.

3. dip one end of metal spoon in hot water and state their observation.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. heat one end of iron rod while holding the other. Note that the palm gets warm with time.

2. discover that heat is transferred by conduction, convection and radiation.

3. dip one end of metal spoon in hot water and state their observation.

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND ENERGY

###### TOPIC 7 – WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Objects and meter rule

2. Balls, stones, books

3. Wound clock

4. Toy car

5. Bicycle

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain the concept of work, energy and power.

2. explain the meaning of potential energy and kinetic energy.

3. use the formula – Power = Work done ÷ Time

4. state energy transfers that occur when work is done.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

1. Concepts of work, energy and power

2. Meaning of potential and kinetic energy

3. Calculations involving work done ÷ time

4. Energy transfer when work is done

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. guides students to illustrate the concept of work and the relationship between work, energy and power.

2. leads students in a discussion to illustrate potential and kinetic energy.

3. leads the students to solve some examples.

4. initiates and leads discussion to show that energy transfers occur when work is done.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. measure height to determine work done by a falling object.

2. use materials e.g. ball, a stone for activity on the potential and kinetic energy.

3. study and practice solving similar problems.

4. participate in discussion and record the main ideas.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. define work, energy and power.

2. explain the meanings of P.E and K.E.

3. solve some problems on the concepts of power and work.

4. state energy transfer that occurs when work is done with specific examples.