Biology Guides SS 1 Organization of Life

 

Biology Guides SS 1 Organization of Life – Classification of Living Things, Recognizing Living Things, The, Cell and Its Environment and Properties and Functions of the Cell 

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – ORGANIZATION OF LIFE 

TOPIC 1 – CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS 

 

LEARNING AREA

1. KINGDOMS MONERA, PROTISTA AND FUNGI,

2. PLANTAE AND ANIMALIA

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Cultures of bacteria and blue-green algae

2. Microscope slide, cover slips and ditch water. Prepare slides of Amoeba, Chlamydomonas etc.

3. Mushrooms or moulds

 

4. Moss plant, lemna, pistia, flowering plants

5. Charts/drawings of all the organisms listed above

6. Snails, toads, cockroaches, grasshoppers, earthworms etc.

7. Pictures, drawings and charts of all the organism

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to state the characteristic features of the kingdoms and give specific examples of representative organisms.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Kingdom Monera (Prokaryotes)

 

  • singled-celled, motile or non-motile organisms.
  • No definite nucleus. Bacteria and blue-green algae make up this kingdom.

2. Kingdom Protista (Eukaryotes)

  • single-celled, motile or non-motile organisms
  • Complex cell structure with definite nucleus e.g. Chlamydomonas and Amoeba

3. Kingdom Fungi (Eukaryotes) – mainly non-motile organisms, composed of hyphae containing nuclei e.g. moulds, mushrooms and Rhizopus

4. Kingdom plantae (Eucaryotes)

  • Many-celled, non-motile organisms which contain chlorophyll that enable them to photosynthesize.
  • Members include mosses, ferns, pines, oil palms and yam plants

 

5.Kingdom Animalia (Eucaryotes)

  • Many-celled, motile organisms that feed on other organisms.
  • Members include corals, worms, insects, snails, fishes, frogs, snakes, monkeys and cows

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher to grow cultures of bacteria and blue-green algae.

2. Teacher prepares slides of Chlamydomonas or Amoeba

3. Teacher guides the students to collect ditch water and view samples under the microscope.

4. Teacher guides the students to uproot the fern plant, collect lemna, pistia (water lettuce) and break some branches of shrubs and bring them into the laboratory for students’ observation.

 

5. Teacher guides students to collect earthworms, cockroaches, grasshoppers, snails, frogs or toads and bring them into the laboratory for the students to observe and record.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students to observe the cultures, record and make inference

2. Students view the slides and ditch water under the microscope, record their observations and make inferences

3. Students observe and record observations

4. Students observe, draw and make inferences

5. Students observe all the specimens, record and make  inferences.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. state how to grow Rhizopus

2. students should be able to describe single celled organisms.

3. describe Rhizopus and mushrooms

4. describe stuctures habitats and adaptive features of moss, fern, lemna, pista and flowering plants

5. describe structures, habitats and habitat adaptive features of earthworm, cockroach, snail, toad, etc.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – ORGANIZATION OF LIFE 

TOPIC 2 – RECOGNIZING LIVING THINGS

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Plants and animals in the environment

2. Slides of unicellular organisms, onion bulbs, cow’s heart, alimentary canal of a goat

 

3. Charts of the above organisms

4. Models of heart and digestive system of some animals

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state the characteristics of living things.

2. give examples of levels of organization of life.

3. state complexity of organization in higher organisms.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Characteristics of living things

2. Differences between plants and animals

3. Organization of life

A. levels of organisation of life, 

 

  • cell (Euglena, Paramecium)
  • tissue (Hydra)
  • organ (Onion bulb, the heart of Cow)
  • system (e.g. digestive system, excretory system)

B. complexity of organisation in higher organisms – advantages and disadvantages.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher provides a live cockroach and a potted plant. Teacher asks students to observe.

2. Teacher prepares or brings prepared microscope slides of Euglena or Paramecium and Hydra, mounts them on the microscope.

3. Teacher provides onion bulbs, cow’s heart and the digestive system of a goat.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students collect as many living things as possible from the school premises and record them.

2. Students view the slides under the microscope and record their observations.

3. Students observe the specimens, record their observations and make inference.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. list three characteristics of living things

2. state three differences between plants and animals

3. state two advantages and disadvantages wach of complexity in higher organisms.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – ORGANIZATION OF LIFE 

TOPIC 3 – SOME PROPERTIES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Spirogyra, fertilizer, yeast and rat.

2. Conical flask, boiling tube, Elodea plant.

3. Sodium hydroxide, rubber bung, conical flask, potted plants, clamp, vaseline.

4. Maize grains, cowpea seeds, empty milk tins or plastic containers.

5. Auxanometer to record shoot growth.

6. Clinostat, seedlings of cowpea or maize.

7. Prepared slides of paramecium and Euglena. Microscope, culture of paramecium and euglena

8. Potted plants, cut out shoots of plants, earthworm

 

  • yeast, warm water, plastic bowls
  • flowers of different plants, flamboyant flowers, razor blade.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. recognise that some nutrients (micronutrients) are needed in small qualities while others (macronutrients) are needed in large quantities.

2. show experimentally that the break-down of carbohydrates may be partial (fermentation) or complete.

3. recognise that cells require proteins, fats amd carbohydrates for the production of new protoplasm, for repair, growth and provision of energy.

4. recognise that certain cells are autotrophic others are heterotrophic.

5. discuss the role of enzymes in digestion.

6. infer that excretion is the removal of metabolic waste products from the cell which may be toxic or which are in excess of the cell needs. Removal of waste products is by diffusion through the body contractile vacuole.

7. identify growth as:

 

  • increase in dry weight
  • irreversible increase in size and length
  • increase in number of cells

8. carry out experiments

  • from which growth curves could be constructed
  • determine the regions of fastest growth e.g. in the root.

9. demonstrate by experiments factors that affect growth.

10. explain ability of cell to detect and respond to external stimuli.

11. identify structural adaptations for mobility e.g cillia and flagella.

12. recognise reproduction as the ability of living things to produce new individuals of their type.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Feeding definition and types

  • micronutrients
  • macronutrients

2. Cellular respiration

  • definition of cellular respiration
  • aerobic respiration (catabolism); Krebs cycle
  • anaerobic respiration
  • energy release during respiration

3. Anabolism- usefulness of food

4. Autotophy

  • photosynthesis
  • chemosynthesis

5. Heterotrophy

6. Role of enzymes

7. Excretion

  • excretory organelles in living cells
  • waste products of metabolic activities of living cells
  • forms in which waste products are excreted

8. Growth:

 

  • basis of growth-cell division (mitosis) enlargement and differentiation
  • regulation of growth by hormones

9. Cell reactions to its environment

  • irritability as basic characteristics of the protoplasm
  • types of responses

10. Movement:

  • cyclosis
  • organelles for movement
  • growth movement as regulated by auxins.

11. Reproduction:

A. asexual

  • fission
  • budding
  • vegetative propagation.

B. sexual

 

  • conjugation
  • fusion of male and female gametes, meiosis, structure and functions of the male and female gonads.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher sets up experiments to show:

  • the effects of different nutrients on spirogyra
  • the effects of high concentration of fertilizer on plants

2. Teacher sets experiments to show:

  • respiration in yeast (anaerobic)
  • respiration in rat (aerobic)

3. Teacher draws the Krebs cycle on the chalkboard.

4. Teacher sets experiments to show growth as:

  • increase in gross height
  • increase in length

5. Teacher helps students to prepare and mount slides of root tip to observe cell division.

6. Teacher guide students to demonstrate action of ptyalin on cooked starch.

7. Teacher set up experiments to demonstrate the release of oxygen during photosynthesis.

8. Teacher performs experiment to show:

 

  • that carbon dioxide is used by green plants in sunlight
  • that starch is formed in photosynthesis

9. Teacher performs experiments to show factors that affect plant and animal growth such as availability of nutrients, water, humidity, light, temperature and hormones.

10. Teacher performs experiments on:

  • phototrophic response of shoots
  • geotrophic response of roots
  • geotrophic response of shoots
  • phototactic response in earthworms

11. Teacher makes cultures of paramecium and Euglena and mount them under the microscope

12. Teacher provides prepared slides of paramecium and euglena

 

13. Teacher provides yeast, warm water and plastic bowls

14. Teacher provides prepared slides of conjugation in paramecium.

13. Teacher provides prepared slides of conjugation in spirogyra and longitudinal section of the pistil of a flower.

14. Teacher gets students to collect flamboyant flower.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students to observe, record and discuss experiments.

2. Students draw the Krebs cycle along with the teacher.

3. Students produce saliva from their mouths to carry out the experiments

4. Students observe the experiments and to identify the gas produced using a glowing splint.

 

5. Students observe the experiments, record and discuss their observations

6. Students to plant maize grains and cowpea seeds and watch them germinate and grow. Taking note of the length of stem and number of leaves produced and record daily.

7. Students observe experiments, record and draw up conclusions

8. Students observe, record, and summarize results in a tabular form

9. Students observe movement of paramecium and Euglena. Students observe cillia and flagella using prepared slides.

10. (a) Students make temporary mount of yeast cells, identify and draw yeast cells that show budding.

(b) Students examine mounted paramecium, identify and draw conjugating paramecium

11. Students to observe, record and discuss with the teacher taking note of ovule which contains the ovum.

 

12. Students examine the flower, taking note of all the parts especially the stamen and pistil.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state different stages of Krebs cycle.

2. distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration

3. discuss the uses of food to organisms

4. differentiate between autotrophs and heterotrophs.

5. state three basic materials necessary for photosynthesis.

6. state and discuss the role of enzymes in digestion

7. define excretion in relation to cells

8. define growth in relation to cell division

9. describe the factors that affect growth

10. discuss the cell’s ability to respond to stimuli

11. define reproduction and state the forms of reproduction

12. differentiate between mitosis and meiosis.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – ORGANIZATION OF LIFE 

TOPIC 4 – THE CELL 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Microscope

2. Slides

3. Prepared slides

4. Charts showing different forms in which cells exist

5. A generalized diagram of a cell

6. Diagrams of plant and animal cells

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. recognize single celled organisms.

2. distinguish between free-living cells and colonies, filaments and tissues.

 

3. describe the general structure of a cell.

4. differentiate between a plant and an animal cell

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Cell as a living unit of an organism

2. Forms in which living cell exists:

  • as an independent organism
  • as a colony
  • as a filament

3. Cell structure

  • the cell theory
  • cell structure and functions of cell components
  • differences and similarities between plants and animal cell

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher provides prepared slides of paramecium or Euglena, Volvox and Spirogyra.

2. Teacher guides students to collect Spirogyra from pond or ditch, feel, observe and record their observations.

 

3. Teacher mounts slides of plant and animal cells for students’ observation.

4. Teacher presents charts showing similarities and differences in plant and animal cells.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students observe the slide under the microscope and record their observations.

2. Students observe the spirogyra and note its nature.

3. Students observe slides and charts of plants and animal cells draw and note their differences and similarities

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state why the cell is a living unit.

2. identify the various forms in which cells exists.

3. describe the structure of the cell.

4. differentiate/distinguish a plant cell from an animal cell.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – ORGANIZATION OF LIFE 

TOPIC 5 – THE CELL AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Perfume, potassium permanganate, beakers and water

2. Pig’s bladder, thistle funnel, sugar, peeled yam stopper and clamp

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. demonstrate diffusion and osmosis experimentally.

2. recognize that osmosis is a form of diffusion.

3. recognize that plasmolysis can lead to wilting and haemolysis can lead to loss of blood.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Diffusion

  • definition
  • process
  • significance

 

2. Osmosis

  • diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
  • haemolysis
  • plasmolysis
  • osmometer with living material
  • biological significance of these processes.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher provides cheap perfume and requests a student to spray it in one end of the classroom.

2. The teacher places a crystal of potassium permanganate in a beaker of water and leave it to stand and ask the students to observe what has happened.

3. Teacher to demonstrate osmosis in

  • a non-living system
  • a living system

4. Teacher demonstrates experiments to show effects of solutions of different concentrations on red blood cells; effects of water and sugar solution on onion cells.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students sprays the perfume as directed by the teacher.

2. Students describe what happened.

3. Students repeat the experiments, observe, record and discuss their observations.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state definitions of the processes.

2. carry out experiments to demonstrate the processes.

 

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