Biology Guides SS 1 The Organism and Its Environment

 

TEACHING AREA

Biology Guides SS 1 The Organism and Its Environment – Aquatic Habitat (Marine Habitat), Basic Ecological Concept, Energy Transformation in Nature, Estuarine Habitat, Functioning Ecosystem (Autotropy and Heterotropy, Food Web and Tropic Level), Micro Organisms Around us and in Action, Relevance of Biology to Agriculture, Terrestrial Habitat – Marsh, Forest, Grassland, Arid Land and Towards Better Health 

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 1 – AQUATIC HABITAT (MARINE HABITAT)

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Ecological instruments, e.g. such disc used to compare turbidity of water, container for collecting samples.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. describe the characteristics of marine habitats.

2. describe the pattern of distribution of plants and animals in marine habitat, noting the dominant ones.

3. recognize some adaptive features of the plants and animals in the habitats.

4. infer the food chain of the organisms.

5. determine some of the physical factors, e.g. temperature, relative humidity, light, wind and  pH.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Characteristics of marine habitat

2. The major zones:

  • inter-tidal zone
  • littoral zone
  • ocean zone

 

3. Distribution of the organisms in the habitat.

4. Adaptive features of marine organisms e.g. bladder for floating, holdfast for attachment

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

Teacher takes students to study a specified site of (the shallow water near the shore [Littoral Zone] edge of the sea [inter-tidal zone]).

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. Observe the pattern of the distribution of the biotic components in the habitats and their adaptive features.

2. Identify the biotic components.

3. Collect samples from the site and study them taking note of adaptive features

4. Construct food chains of the biotic components.

5. Take readings of temperature, relative humidity and estimate light intensity

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state the major zones of marine habitat.

2. state common adaptive features found in marine organisms.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 2 – BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts, photographs, films.

2. Mice food.

3. Loamy soil, sandy soil, clay soil, measuring cylinder, cotton wool, funnel and water.

4. Dry and wet thermometer, soil thermometer, rain gauge, quadrat, fish trap, a pooter, insect net, specimen, bottle etc.

5. Different types of measuring instruments e.g. thermometer, rain gauge, meter-rule, measuring cylinder, wind vane.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. name components of any ecosystem.

2. measure or estimate sizes of some ecosystems.

3. relate the dynamic nature of an ecosystem to its size.

4. mention major local (Nigerian) biotic communities.

 

5. give names of organisms typical of each community.

6. briefly describe different types of communities in tropical regions and temperate regions.

7. name ecological factors common to all habitats.

8. briefly describe each of the factors pointing out their relative importance.

9. mention the factors which affect water-retentivity of soil, types and determine the amount of water each soil types can hold.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Ecosystem – Components and sizes:

A. ecological concepts

  • environment
  • biosphere
  • lithosphere
  • hydrosphere
  • atmosphere
  • habitats
  • niche
  • population
  • biotic community (biome)
  • ecosystem

 

B. components of an ecosystem

  • abiotic
  • biotic
  • aquatic
  • terrestrial

2. Local biotic communities or biomes

  • Tropical rainforest
  • Southern guinea savanna
  • Northern guinea savanna
  • Sahel savanna
  • Desert
  • Swamp/estuarine regions

3. Major biomes of the world:

  • Tropical forest
  • Savanna
  • Desert
  • Shrub
  • Afro-alpine
  • Swamp

4. Population studies by sampling method:

  • population
  • dominance
  • density
  • factors that affect population.

5. Ecological factor: aquatic, terrestrial, and factors common to all habitats. Importance of ecological factors to populations of animals and plants.

6. Relationship between soil types and water holding effect of soil on vegetation.

7. A. Simple measurement of ecological factors.

 

  • physical factors: climatic, topographic and gaseous
  • edaphic factors: chemical and physical composition, moisture content and thickness of soil.

B. Measuring instruments.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher takes students on a fieldtrip to at least one of the biotic communities e.g. a forest reserve or a botanic garden.

2. Teacher makes available study charts, photographs, and films of different biotic communities in Nigeria and biomes of the world.

3. The teacher guides the students to study what happens to a cleared piece of land and also to study the effects of food shortage using mice.

4. Teacher guides the students to measure sizes of the ecosystem.

 

5. Teacher displays ecological instruments.

6. Teacher displays the ecological instruments before the students and makes them to use them to measure ecological factors.

7. Teacher takes students to the field and shows them how to measure the population of a small area.

8. Teacher provides loamy soil, sandy soil and clay soil, measuring cylinder, cotton wool, funnel and water.

9. Show students how to use various measuring instruments to measure the physical factors of the ecosystems e.g. temperature, rainfall etc.

10. Show students how to improvise some measuring instruments e.g. wind vane.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students study the community, record and discuss.

2. Students study them and discuss.

3. Students to observe the rats, discuss and make conclusions.

4. Students with the help of the teacher perform the experiment to compare water holding capacity in the three samples of soil.

 

5. Students to study one or more of these ecosystems: a rotten log, a puddle and a pond, a stream and river, a bush.

6. Students study the instruments and write their uses.

7. Students use the materials provided to measure the population of a small area.

8. Students make histograms, bar charts and graph to show different species in a community.

9. Students measure some of the ecological factors which they have studied, e.g. temperature.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. define ecosystem, niche and habitat.

2. list and discuss the major biotic communities in Nigeria.

3. state the differences between desert and sahel savanna.

4. state the characteristics of different soil types and link the characteristics to the water retaining capacity of the soil.

5. describe the major biomes of the world and give the characteristics of each biome.

 

6. list the various factors affecting the population of an area.

7. with the aid of a histogram, show the various animal/plant species in a given area.

8. list some measuring instruments and their uses.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 3 – ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN NATURE

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Charts and cardboards.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. use the knowledge of energy losses in the ecosystem to explain the pyramidal shape of feeding relationships.

2. state that only a small percentage of the radiant energy actually gets to plants.

3. state the first and second laws of thermodynamics and ask them to explain ecological events such as pyramid of energy, food chain, energy flow.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Energy loss in the ecosystem:

  • solar radiation: its intake and loss at the earth’s surface
  • energy loss in the bioshpere
  • measures of primary production e.g. the amount and rate of energy fixation.

2. Laws of thermodynamics:

  • first law
  • second law

3. Application of both law to ecological phenomena.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher draws on the chalkboard the pyramidal shape of feeding relationships.

2. Teacher uses the law of thermodynamics to, explain energy flow across the tropic levels.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students discuss energy loss as a limiting factor in primary production (i.e. production of autotrophy).

2. Students recall instances which are explained by laws of thermodynamics.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state why the tip of the pyramid of energy has the least number of organisms.

2. state the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 4 – ESTUARINE HABITAT

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Ecological instruments e.g. light meter, containers for collecting samples.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. describe the characteristics of the estuarine habitat.

 

2. describe the pattern of distribution of plants and animals in estuarine habitat, noting the dominant ones.

3. recognize some adaptive features of the plants and animals in the habitat.

4. infer the food chain of the organisms.

5. determine some of the physical factors, e.g. temperature, relative humidity, light, wind and pH.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Characteristics of estuarine habitat

2. Types of eutuary

3. Distribution of the plants and animals in estuarine habitat

4. Adaptive features of plants and animals in estuarine habitats

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. guides students to study a specified site.

2. emphasizes the significance of osmo – regulation to estuarine animal.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. Observe the pattern of distribution of the biotic components of the study and their adaptive features.

2. Identify the biotic components.

3. Collect samples from the site.

4. Construct food chains of the biotic components

5. Take readings of temperature, relative humidity and estimate light intensity.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state three characteristics of estuarine habitat.

 

2. state some of the physical factors operating in this habitat.

3. what is osmo – regulation, and why is it important for estuarine organisms.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 5 – FRESH WATER HABITAT

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Sashay disc and other ecological instruments

2. Charts showing characteristics of freshwater habitat, and plants and animals found in them

3. Map of Nigeria showing different habitats

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. recognize the variety and size of fresh water habitat.

2. recognize the variety, quantity and distribution of various organisms in fresh water habitat.

3. recognize seasonal changes in the size and population of the habitat.

4. recognize the adaptation of the animal and plants in the chosen fresh water habitat.

 

5. estimate the proportion of mineral salt present in the freshwater habitat.

6. infer the food chain in the chosen freshwater habitat.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Characteristics of freshwater habitat.

2. Types of freshwater:

  • stagnant ones
  • running water

3. Adaptive features of fresh water organisms.

4. Fresh-water organisms.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. takes the students to a specified site of study ( a fresh water habitat) e.g. pond and guides them to carry out the activities listed.

2. ensures that students are not taken to infested fresh water, e.g. with guinea worm.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

On a prepared site, students are led by their teacher to:

 

1. observe the pattern of distribution of the biotic components of the site and their adaptive features.

2. students identify the biotic components

3. collect samples from the site

4. construct food chains of the biotic components

5. take readings of temperature, relative humidity and estimate light intensity

6. estimate light penetration using sashay disc

7. estimate movements of water and speed of flow

8. determine pH, depth, size and turbidity.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state the characteristics of freshwater habitat.

2. state some adaptation of animals and plants in freshwater habitat.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 6 – FUNCTIONING ECOSYSTEM: (AUTOTROPHY AND HETEROTROPHY)

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Plants and animals

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to define the terms autotrophy and heterotrophy.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

Autotophy and heterotrophy

  • producers (autotrophs)
  • consumers (heterotrophs)
  • aquactic and terrestrial examples of producers and consumers.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

Show samples of autotrophs and heterotrophs to students.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

Students collect organisms and classify them as producers, consumers and decomposers

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to state the distinguishing feature between an autotroph and a heterotroph.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 7 – FUNCTIONING ECOSYSTEM (FOOD WEB AND TROPIC LEVEL)

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Cardboard paper and marker

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. recognize that food relationship exists among living things.

2. recognize that chemical energy (in the form of carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and nutrients are transferred among producers, consumers and decomposers.

3. state that tropic level refers to the parts of food chain.

4. correctly define (or describe) food chains and pyramid of energy/number.

5. describe the nature of energy transfer or flow in the ecosystem.

 

6. state that there is a progressive diminution of energy in the feeding chain.

7. recognize a definite change in number of individuals from one feeding level to another, especially between producers and consumers.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Trophic levels

A. energy relationship – concepts of

  • food chain
  • food web

B. non-cycle nature of chemical energy transfer.

C. nutrient movement.

2. Energy flow

  • food/energy relationship in aquatic and terrestrial environments
  • pyramid of energy/numbers
  • nature of energy flow as described by food chains

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher guide students to make chart showing relationship among organisms e.g. food chain, food web.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students develop a chart showing relationships among organisms (food chain and food webs).

 

2. Students construct and explain pyramid of energy/number.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. differentiate between a food web and a food chain.

2. Using different organisms, produce two examples each of food chain and food web.

3. Students to define pyramid of energy and number.

4. Distinguish between pyramid of energy and pyramid of numbers.

5. Use a food chain to describe energy flow in an ecosystem.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 8 – MICRO ORGANISMS AROUND US

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Petri-dishes, culture medium

2. Slides, slides covers, microscope, stains

3. Charts showing:

  • some microorganisms and where they are located in humans
  • some carriers of microorganisms

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

 

1. identify some micro-organisms present in air and water.

2. state the characteristics (colour, pattern of growth, appearance) of colonies of microorganisms.

3. identify microorganisms that can be found on and inside human bodies e.g. under the fingernail, mouth cavity and expired air.

4. describe the effects (beneficial and harmful) of microorganisms on human body.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Micro-organisms in air and water:

  • group of micro-organisms: bacteria, viruses, some algae, protozoa and some fungi
  • concept of culturing

2. Identification of microorganisms in:

  • air
  • pond water
  • river
  • stream

 

3. Micro-organisms in our bodies and food: Ways in which and places through which micro-organisms enter our bodies.

4. Carriers of micro-organisms. Examples of carriers of microorganisms, location of microorganisms in carriers. Types of microorganisms.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. divides the students into working groups, provides each group with sterilized petri-dishes which contain culture medium.

2. coordinates the activities of the students and have them discuss their experiments.

3. mounts some specimen from the different petri-dishes under a microscope and ask pupils to observe.

4. puts up a chart showing the effects of microorganisms.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students in each group grow cultures of microorganisms from air, water and under the finger nails.

2. Students should leave the cultures for three days and then observe, record and make inferences.

3. Students perform the following experiments:

  • to show presence of microorganisms on the teeth, in expired air and dirt under the nails,
  • to show occurrence of microorganisms on a carrier e.g. housefly.

 

4. View the microorganisms under the microscope to identify their pattern of growth.

5. Suggest the effects of microorganisms on food, body, etc.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state where micro-organisms can be found.

2. state what could happen to the teeth if not properly brushed for a long time.

3. describe the characteristics of some microorganisms.

4. what are the effects of microorganisms on human, animals, etc.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 9 – MICRO-ORGANISMS IN ACTION

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Graph sheets

2. Palm wine, yeast, sugar, milk, orange juice and pineapple juice

3. Charts showing mode of spread of few microorganisms

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. recognize the presence of microbes by the colonies they form.

2. measure the rate of growth of microbes.

3. list the beneficial effects of microbes from everyday experiences.

4. recognize that some micro-organisms cause diseases.

5. recognize that some disease causing microorganisms are air-borne, water-borne and are spread through our food.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Growth of micro-organisms: ways of measuring the growth of microorganisms.

2. Beneficial effects e.g. in nature, medicine and industries.

 

3. Harmful effects of some microbes

  • types of disease-causing microorganisms
  • diseases caused by microorganisms
  • ways in which disease causing (pathogenic) microorganisms spread and are transmitted.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. demonstrates culturing and monitor growth rate of microorganisms.

2. discusses with students the economic importance of microorganisms, and give students projects to carry out to assess the effects of microorganisms.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. measure and record growth of a given microorganism from a prepared culture; plot a growth curve and interpret it.

2. perform experiments on fermentation to produce alcohol, fruit juice, etc.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state the relationship among growth rate of microorganisms and environmental factor.

2. state the main ingredients for the production of alcohol and yoghurt.

3. list some diseases caused by microorganisms.

4. discuss some beneficial effects of microorganisms.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 10 – RELEVANCE OF BIOLOGY TO AGRICULTURE

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Different types of plant

2. Charts showing different plant types

3. Small birds

4. Diseased plant types

5. Pre-mature fruits shed by diseased plants

6. Different types of plant pests e.g. cassava mosaic

 

7. Fresh vegetables

8. Dry vegetables

9. Fresh cassava

10. Processes garri

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. classify plants using botanical and agricultural techniques of classification.

2. describe the effects of various agricultural activities on ecological systems.

3. identify pests of certain crops and indicate their control.

4. describe some common disease caused by pests and their control.

5. identify factors that affect production of crops

6. identify some methods of preserving and storing foodstuff.

7. list the factors that

  • affects population growth.
  • affects the availability of man’s food.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Classification of plants:

  • botanical classification (e.g. algae, spermatophytes)
  • agricultural classification (e.g. fibres, latex)
  • classification based on life cycles (e.g. annuals, perennials)

 

2. Effects of agricultural activities on ecological systems:

  • bush clearing/burning
  • tillage
  • fertilization/herbicide and their effect
  • effects of different types of farming on ecological systems

3. Pests and diseases of agricultural importance

  • knowledge of pests (types, life cycles and control) 
  • diseases (types, control)

4. Food production and storage:

  • ways of improving crop yield
  • causes of wastage
  • methods of preserving and storing food.

5. Population growth and food supply, reproduction and population growth

6. Relationship between availability of food and human population. Effects of food storage

7. Government efforts to increase food production e.g. agricultural revolution

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher shows students various types of plants and classifies them.

2. Teacher leads students to visit farm projects to observe various effects of fertilizers and herbicides.

3. Take students on field trip to a farm land cleared by burning.

4. Takes students to a livestock farm to identify pests of animals.

5. Demonstrate different food storage methods to students, e.g. drying process.

6. Collect a large number of insects and use them to demonstrate the effect of food storage.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students collect specimens of various plants and classify them using the three techniques.

2. Students discuss the effects of human activities on natural ecosystems.

3. Students note the effects of pests and diseases on plants and animals in the farm.

4. Students make a table showing local farm, livestock pests and diseases they cause.

5. Students set up experiments to show how food can deteriorate in storage.

 

6. Students practice different modes of food preservation.

7. Students carry out an experiment to show the effect of limited food on animals population, e.g. mice, lizards etc.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. make a large chart showing different ways of classifying plants.

2. discuss the effects of bush burning on a piece of farm land.

3. list some plant pests and discuss their economic importance.

4. discuss four common ways of preserving farm products.

5. list the consequences of shortage of food (food crisis) on the population.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 11 – TERRESTRIAL HABITAT I: MARSH

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Ecological implements e.g. shovels, trowels, containers for collecting samples

2. Charts showing marshy areas

3. Map of Nigeria outlining the marshy areas

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. recognize types of marshes.

2. correlate the effect of rainfall or any other source of water and evaporation to the hangs in a marsh.

3. recognize the adaptations of organisms in marshy habitat.

4. appreciate the marsh as being transitional between aquatic and terrestrial habitat.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Characteristics of a marsh

2. Formation of marshes

3. Types of marshes

4. Plants and animals that live in marshes

5. Adaptive features of these plants and animals

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Identify a marsh where to take students for excursion.

 

2. Guard against students entering a marsh by letting them know the risks involved.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

On a pre-selected site, students:

1. observe the pattern of distribution of the biotic components of the site and their adaptive features.

2. identify the terrestrial animals that usually visit the marsh and other biotic components.

3. collect samples from the sites.

4. construct food chains of the biotic components.

5. take readings of soil and air temperature, relative humidity and estimate light intensity.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state types of marshes.

2. list the names of five terrestrial animals that visit the marsh.

3. give three examples of plants that thrived in marshes.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 12 – TERRESTRIAL HABITAT II: FOREST

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Ecological materials – hoes, shovels, containers for specimen.

 

2. Map of Nigeria showing typical forests.

3. Chart showing the layers of a typical forest.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. recognize that water is not always as available to organisms in terrestrial habitats as to those in aquatic habitats.

2. recognize that water conservation is an important problem in terrestrial habitats.

3. mention effects of climatic factors on vegetation.

4. identify the characteristics of the forest habitat.

5. recognize trophic levels and distribution of animals in a forest.

6. recognize the stratification of plants in a forest.

7. construct food chains available in a forest.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Characteristics of a forest

2. Strata in the forest

3. Distribution of plants and animals that inhabit a forest

4. Adaptive features of the plants and animals

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. identifies a forest site to take students on an excursion.

2. lets the students know the inherent dangers in forests and equip them to take precaution.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

On a pre-selected site students:

1. observe the pattern of distribution of the biotic components of the site and their adaptive features.

2. identify the biotic components.

3. collect samples from the site.

4. construct food chains of the biotic components.

5. take readings of temperature, relative humidity, and estimate light intensity

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. list some biotic components of the forest.

2. state three characteristics of the forest habitat.

3. describe plants stratification of the forest habitat.

4. give examples of plants that are found in different strata of the forest.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 13 – TERRESTRIAL HABITAT III: GRASSLAND

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Ecological implements e.g. hoes, shovels, containers for specimens.

2. Map of Nigeria showing the grassland regions.

3. A picture showing a typical grassland or savanna with animals inhabiting it.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. recognize that the problem of water conservation is greater in the grassland than in the forest.

2. notice the progressive absence of water demanding trees and grasses from the grassland.

 

3. recognize the dominant climatic factors.

4. describe the structural and other adaptations of grassland plants and animals.

5. identify the predominant plant and animal species and the energy relations between them.

6. describe the soil structure of grassland.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Characteristics of grassland

2. Types of grassland

3. Distribution of plants and animals in a grassland.

4. Some adaptations of grassland communities:

 

  • air-conditioned nests e.g. by termites
  • thick barks e.g. baobab and palms
  • leaf fall
  • underground stems e.g. grasses

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. identifies grassland where to take students to.

2. visits the site to ensure its suitability for study.

3. equips the students to undertake the proposed visit.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

On a pre-selected site, students:

1. collect samples.

2. observe the patterns of distributions.

3. identify collated biotic components.

4. take readings of relative humidity, temperature, estimate light intensity.

 

5. collect and observe the soil texture and infer the porosity and poor water retentivity.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state three dominants diametric factors in a grassland.

2. list names of some predominant plants and animals in a grassland habitat.

3. identify some characteristics of plants and animals found in grasslands that made them suitable for their habitat.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 14 – TERRESTRIAL HABITAT IV: ARID LANDS

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Ecological instruments that will measure factors in the habitat.

2. Map of Nigeria showing the arid regions.

3. Charts showing characteristics and components of the arid lands.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

 

1. recognize arid lands as places where water is not available to organisms because it is scarce or frozen.

2. mention that sun, extremes of temperature and water scarcity are factors that desert lives have to cope with.

3. differentiate cold desert (Tundra) from hot desert (Sahara).

4. adaptation of organisms to arid lands.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Characteristics of arid lands.

2. Types of arid lands.

3. Distribution of the organisms in the habitat.

4. Some adaptations of organisms to arid lands.

  • water conservation in plants and animals
  • body temperature regulation in plants and animals.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

 

1. identifies an arid land to take students on excursion.

2. visits the site to judge its suitability for the study.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

On a pre-selected site, students:

1. observe the pattern of distribution of the biotic components under and/on litter, on trunks, branches and leaves of trees.

2. collect samples of biotic components.

3. identify collected biotic components.

4. take readings of relative humidity and estimate light intensity.

5. students should take note of soil on vegetations.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state some characteristics of arid lands.

2. describe some adaptations exhibited by organisms in the arid habitat.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 15 – TOWARDS BETTER HEALTH

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Ovens, antibiotics, petri-dishes.

2. Charts showing proper refuse treatment and disposal modes.

3. Charts listing health organisations and their areas of work.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. describe some ways by which disease-causing microorganisms and infectious diseases can be controlled.

2. state ways of controlling vectors.

 

3. list ways of protecting ourselves from diseases caused by microorganisms spread by vectors.

4. describe some methods used in disposal of refuse and sewage.

5. state the roles the individuals should play to ensure good health

6. name some national and international health organisation and provide some descriptions of what they do.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Control of harmful microorganisms:

control of disease-causing microorganisms, high temperature, antibiotics, high salinity, antiseptics, dehydration.

2. Vectors:

 

  • definition
  • ways of controlling vectors.

3. Students’ health:

maintenance of good health

A. importance of community

B. ways in which communities do these:

  • refuse disposal
  • sewage disposal
  • protection of water
  • protection of food
  • control of diseases
  • health organisations

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher organizes and takes students to visit sewage treatment plant.

2. Teacher invites resource persons to talk on public health and get students to write and submit essays on refuse/sewage disposal.

 

3. Teacher gets students to construct proper waste disposal sites.

4. Display charts on

  • proper waste disposal
  • refuse treatment
  • public health organisations

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students work in groups to perform different aspects of the experiment on control of microorganisms, using high temperature, antibiotics etc. Students collect results of the separate experiments and discuss.

2. Students perform experiment to show that spraying a body of stagnant water with a layer of oil can destroy a vector e.g. mosquito.

3. Students study the stages in the life cycle of the mosquito; Students record their observations using diagrams and write ups.

4. Students study charts on health organisations and their areas of work.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. list some vectors of microorganisms.

2. how can we protect our environment from harmful microorganisms.

3. students to list ways by which water can be protected from pollution.

4. list four national and international health organisations, describing their area of work.

 

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