Biology Guides SS 1 The Organism at Work – Nutrition in Animals and Tissue and Supporting Systems

 

Biology Guides SS 1 The Organism at Work – Nutrition in Animals and Tissue and Supporting Systems

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AT WORK 

TOPIC 1 – NUTRITION IN ANIMALS 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Many types of food.

2. Chart showing the constituents of a balanced diet.

3. Olive oil, bile from bird and yeast, fresh meat.

4. Materials for performing food tests e.g. Fehling’s solution and Benedict’s solution.

5. Teeth of herbivores and carnivores.

6. Chart/diagram illustrating the internal structure of a mammalian tooth.Pigeon and cockroach.

7. Saliva, test tubes, Benedict’s solution, starch, iodine solution, distilled water.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define what food substance are.

 

2. list types of food substances and state what makes a balanced diet.

3. list types of heterotrophic nutrition and feeding mechanisms in holozoic organisms.

4. (i) list types of mammalian teeth.

(ii) describe the structure of a mammalian tooth.

(iii) state the dental formula and adaptations of dentition to mode of nutrition.

5. describe digestion In Amoeba, Earthworm, Cockroach, grasshopper and birds.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Food Substances:

2. Types of food substances:

  • Carbohydrate
  • Fats and oils
  • Proteins
  • Minerals salts
  • Vitamins
  • Water

 

3. Balanced diet

4. Heterotropic nutrition:

A. Types of heteotrophic nutrition,

  • Holozoic nutrition
  • Saprophytic nutrition
  • Parasitic nutrition

B. Feeding mechanisms in holozoic organisms:

  • Gilter feeding
  • Deposit feeding
  • Fluid feeding

5. Mammalian teeth:

A. The different types of teeth

  • Incisors
  • Canines
  • Premolars
  • Molars

B. Structure of a tooth

C. Dental formula

D. Adaptations of dentition to mode of nutrition.

6. Enzymes

 

  • What are enzymes
  • Characteristics of enzymes
  • Classification of enzymes
  • Importance of enzymes

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher provides garri, yam, rice, meat, butter, olive oil, common salt, fish, prawn, pepper, cowpea,crabs and onion, etc to the class.

2. Teacher performs experiments to show:

  • show emulsification of fats or oils
  • identification of different food types

3. Teacher performs experiment to show that yeast cells produce a digestive enzyme that degrade food.

4. The teacher exposes some pieces of meat in the laboratory.

5. Teacher collects different types of teeth from the abattoir and from dead cats or dogs.

 

6. Teacher to dissect a cockroach and a pigeon to show the alimentary canals.

7. The teacher performs experiment to test for the acidity of the enzyme ptylin.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students categorise the food items under four classes of food.

2. Students observe the experiments and make inferences.

3. The students grow rhizopus on bread and observe the degradation of the bread daily.

4. Students observe flies and record their observations.

5. Students observe the different teeth, draw and label.

6. Students observe, draw and label.

7. Students observe the experiments, record and discuss.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. list five food items that contains fats or oils, protein and carbohydrate.

2. describe a meal that is balanced and identify the food substances it contains.

3. distinguish between heterotrophic and holozoic feeding.

4. list the various heterotrophic nutrition.

5. list types of teeth.

6. draw and label a mammalian teeth.

7. students to state the importance of the crop in the bird’s alimentary canal.

8. state the functions of ptyalin in food digestion.

9. list the various types of enzymes and state their importance in digestion.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AT WORKS 

TOPIC 2 – TISSUES AND SUPPORTING SYSTEMS

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Arthropods, earthworms, cartilagenous fish, bones of animals, mammalian skeleton

2. Monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants e.g. guinea grass and water leaf, snails and toads.

  • small mammal
  • pot, heating source, e.g. stove and cooker.
  • methylated spirit, bleach
  • different bone specimens from the vertebral column.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. recognize different skeletal and supporting tissues.

2. state the location and arrangement of skeletal and supporting tissues in animals.

3. state the different supporting tissues (turgid parenchyma, collenchyma, xylem (wood) sclerenchyma) in plants, and the arrangement of these supporting tissues.

 

4. state the functions of skeleton and supporting tissues in animals and plants and how these functions are performed.

5. construct a working model of a human arm and explain how it functions

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Skeleton and supporting systems in animals:

  • Biological significance
  • Forms e.g. chitin, cartilages and bones.

2. Types of skeleton.

  • Hydrostatic skeleton
  • Exo-skeleton
  • Endo-skeleton

3. Vertebrate skeletons:

  • The skull
  • Sternum and ribs
  • Limb girdles
  • Limbs

4. Bones of the vertebral column.

 

5. Different types of supporting tissues in plants – location and arrangement of structural components.

6. Functions of skeleton in animals:

  • Protection
  • Support
  • Locomotion

7. Functions of supporting tissues in plants:

  • Strength
  • Rigidity
  • Resistance against the forces of wind and water.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher provides cockroaches, grasshopppers, centipede, earthworm and cartilaginous fish, individual bones of the mammalian skeleton and infant mammalian skeleton.

2. Teacher provides transverse section of stems and roots of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.

 

3. Teacher to provide relevant materials for students to make working model of a human arm.

4. Teacher to provide small mammal and guide students to produce a mammalian skeleton.

5. Teacher to provide different bones of the vertebral column and guide the students to identify their features.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students observe all the specimens taking note of the different skeletons and stating the types of skeleton.

2. Students to identify and list the main parts of the mammalian skeleton.

3. Students view transverse section of roots and stems under the microscope and make drawings of the tissues, taking note of the shape of the cells of the various tissues.

4. Students to list differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.

5. Students to observe the protective functions of the shell of snails, skull of toad.

6. Students to observe the bones and attached muscles in the hind limb of a toad.

7. Students to extract skeleton using small mammal either by boiling or burying method.

8. Students to note the distinguishing features of the bones of the vertebral column.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. state three differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant.

2. state the relationship between skeleton and muscles during movement

3. discuss what plants and animals would look like without exo-and endo-skeletons.

4. use the boiling or burying method to produce the skeleton of a small mammal.

5. identify the characteristics of different bones of the vertebral column.

 

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