Biology Guides SS 2 The Organism and Its Environment

 

Biology Guides SS 2 The Organism and Its Environment – Conservation of Natural Resources, Ecological Management (Adaptation Association, Pollution and Tolerance), Nutrient Cycling in Nature and Pasts and Diseases of Plants 

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 1 – CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. The conservation law document

2. The film on gas flaring

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define conservation.

2. enumerate reasons for protection of lands and wild life from destruction and extinction.

3. state why various conservation laws should be obeyed.

4. discuss problems and difficulties associated with conservation.

 

5. discuss the need to conserve petroleum and natural gas.

6. state methods of conservation of a given natural resources.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

Conservation of natural resouces:

1. What it means?

2. Ways of ensuring it,

  • agencies responsible for conservation
  • legislation
  • education
  • erection of parks and reserves.

3. Benefits of Conservation

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

 

1. Discusses the problem and difficulties of conservation with the students, and lead them to suggest possible solutions.

2. Passes round the conservation law document

3. Shows film or documentary on gas flaring, oil spillage.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. Profer solutions to problems of conservation.

2. Browse through the document and study it more closely after class.

3. Watch documentary on gas flaring, oil spillage etc.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. state the meaning of conservation.

2. state two conservation laws from the law book.

3. mention two methods of conservation.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 2 – ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT (ADAPTATION) 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Hibiscus plant, water weed, chameleon, different colours of cloth.

2. Tall glass jar, water, plasticine, two pieces of water weeds specimen of toadpole, fish, toad, beaks of the owl and sparrow or other birds.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

 

1. state that adaptation may be a modification in response to environment factors.

2. describe the availability of water as the principal factor for plant and animal distribution.

3. list examples of adaptation to environmental factors.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Adaptation in form and function of living organisms due to environmental conditions.

2. Effects of availability of water on adaptive modifications.

3. Structural adaptation of tadpoles and fish to life in water and Structural adaptation in birds.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

 

1. Asks students to examine the root of hibiscus or any herbaceous plant and the root of a water weed (e.g Elodea)

2. Places chameleons against different backgrounds.

3. Guides students to attach a hump of plasticine to the base of two water weeds, later drop one into a tall gas jar containing water and leave the other one on the table.

4. Asks students to compare tadpole and fish, fish and toad, sparrow and owl.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. Relate observed differences to the habitats of the two plants.

2. Note the colour changes.

3. Note and record the difference in the appearance of the two weeds after a while.

4. Note the morphological differences in the listed organisms.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. explain the principle behind adaptation.

2. relate the difference in appearance of water weeds.

3. relate the observed differences in appearance of aquatic and terrestrial adaptations.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

TOPIC 3 – ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT (ASSOCIATION) 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Root nodules

2. Ascaris

3. Ticks

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. recognize some of the different types of association existing between different species.

2. identify beneficial, harmful and neutral forms of association among organisms.

3. deduce the mode of life of a given organism from observed characteristics.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Types of Association

  • Symbiosis – mutual benefits
  • Parasitism – harmful to host
  • Mutualism – beneficial to both independent living possible.
  • Commensalisms – host unaffected while the commensal benefits.

 

2. Features of biological importance possessed by organisms of an association

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher presents specimens of root nodules (for symbiosis) and ascaris (for parasitism). 

2. Asks students to collect ticks from cow or dog and where possible hermit crab.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. Students study the root nodules and the Ascaris noting their characteristic features.

2. Collect ticks from cow or dog.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students list the characteristics that make tick an ectoparasite.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 4 – ECOLOGICAL Management (POLLUTION) 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Glass jars, mosquito larvae, tadpoles, crude oil, detergents, insecticides.

2. The industrial estate visited.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define pollution.

2. name air pollutants and their sources.

3. enumerate the harmful effects of pollutant.

4. state effects of detergents, insecticides, artificial fertilizers and herbicides on aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

5. identify poor sewage system as a source of pollution.

 

6. name domestic and industrial wastes that pollute land and water.

7. identify the decay of organic matter (e.g. dead animals and plants) as a source of pollution.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Pollution of the atmosphere,

  • Nature, names and sources of air pollutants
  • Effects of air pollutants
  • Effects of noise

2. Pollution of water and soil,

  • Types and composition of pollutants
  • Side effects

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. Leads students to set up experiments on pollution,

 

  • set up jars containing water for drinking.
  • in each jar, place mosquito larvae, tadpoles.
  • add pollutants such as crude oil, detergents or insecticide.

2. Leads students to visit an industrial estate to study industrial waste and their effects.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. Observe the effect of the pollutant on the organisms in the jars.

2. Assist to set up experiments on pollution.

3. Observe the various effects of industrial wastes on the environment.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. discuss the effect of pollutants on organisms.

2. write a comprehensive report of their visit in the context of pollution in the environment.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 5 – ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT (TOLERANCE) 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Tilapia, salt, water, beakers or big glass bowl (depending on fish size), the graph drawn on the board.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. discuss why living things possess a range of tolerance to environment factors.

 

2. list the biotic factors that impose tolerance on organisms.

3. depict tolerance range with a graph.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Concepts of minimum and maximum range of tolerance

2. Geographic range illustrating maximum range of tolerance

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Teacher guides students to perform experiment showing limits of tolerance of tilapia.

2. Teacher draws a typical tolerance range graph.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Students subject tilapia to different concentrations of salt solution and record their observations of rate of operculum movements.

2. Students study the graph.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state three abiotic features for tolerance.

2. draw a graph of tolerance range.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 6 – NUTRIENT CYCLING IN NATURE

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Chart showing the carbon cycle.

2. Beaker, test tube, green plant (Elodea), filter funnel, water.

3. Slides, mirrors or windows louvers, students breathe out on the slides, mirror or louver blade.

4. Chart showing the nitrogen cycle.

5. Decaying materials such as meat broth, fish, boiled rice, conical flask and stopper.

6. Vacuum flask, boiled beans.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

 

1. describe how carbon circulates in nature.

2. draw the carbon cycle in detail.

3. state why the carbon cycle is necessary for life.

4. recognize the delicate balance between carbon and oxygen.

5. describe the part played by plants and animals in the water cycle.

6. draw the water cycle in detail.

7. describe with the aid of diagram the role of nitrogen.

8. state that energy can be obtained by decomposing organic substances.

9. identify one of the gases produced during decay.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Carbon and Oxygen cycles:

A. The carbon cycle

 

  • Definition
  • The presence of carbon cycling
  • The importance of carbon cycle for life.

B. he oxygen cycle

  • The process of oxygen cycling
  • The importance of oxygen to living organisms
  • The carbon-oxygen balance

2. The water cycle:

  • The process of water cycling
  • Importance of water to living organisms.

3. The nitrogen cycle:

  • Importance of nitrogen to plants and animals.
  • The process of nitrogen cycling.

 

4. Decomposition in nature:

  • Micro and macro decomposers
  • Role of decomposers

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. With the help of the carbon cycle chart, leads students to,

  • list the sources of carbon dioxide.
  • appreciate the relative importance of the various components in the cycle.

2. Leads students to perform experiments to show absorption of carbon dioxide and release of oxygen during photosynthesis.

3. Demonstrate the experiment that shows the presence of water in expired air.

4. Discusses the cycle with a well drawn chart.

5. With the aid of a well drawn chart of the nitrogen cycle,

  • explain the cycle of nitrogen in atmosphere to plants and animals.
  • Importance of nitrogen to pants and animals.

6. Mounts experiments to show that:

 

  • gases e.g. carbon dioxide, ammonia are released during decomposition.
  • heat energy is released during decomposition.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. List the sources of carbon dioxide.

2. Draw the carbon cycle

3. Perform the photosynthesis experiment.

4. Observe the experiment and describe the conclusion of water in expired air.

5. Draw the nitrogen cycle.

6. Draw the water cycle.

7. Observe the results and record their observations.

8. Identify the gas(es) released.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. describe the process involved in the carbon cycle.

2. state two reasons why atmospheric carbon dioxide must be kept in check ( i.e. the carbon-oxygen balance).

3. draw and label the detail of the water cycle.

4. draw the nitrogen cycle.

5. list the importance of nitrogen to plants and animals.

6. state the role of decomposers.

 

BIOLOGY 

THEME – THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 7 – PESTS AND DISEASES OF CROPS

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Board, infected leaves and crops.

2. Pests, e.g. grasshoppers, termites, locusts, rodents.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify pests of certain crops and indicate their control.

2. describe the life cycles of some of the pests.

3. describe some eight common diseases caused by pests.

4. describe pest control measures.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Definition of pests

2. Classification of pest by

  • the part they attack – (stem borers, root feeders, leaf feeders, young shoot feeders, plant and seed feeders).
  • their animal type – (invertebrate pests, e.g Nematodes, Arthropods, locusts, grasshoppers, coleopteran, Lepidoptera larvae of butterflies).
  • vertebrate pests- (birds e.g. Quell, Weaver bird, mammals e.g rodents, monkeys).

 

3. Life cycles of pests

4. Control of Pests – diseases caused by pest and their agents:

  • fungal diseases, e.g. blight, root rot and mildew
  • bacterial diseases, e.g. bacterial wilt, leaf spot, soft rot

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. Defines pests.

2. Classifies and lead students to give examples.

3. Traces the life cycles of some of the pests.

4. Together with students create a table showing the relationship of crop disease, their agents and methods of control.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. Give examples of pests.

2. Build the table along with the teacher and copy table in their notes.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. describe the life cycles of three pests.

2. describe one crop diseases.

3. list three pest control measures.

 

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