Chemistry Guides for SS 1 Chemistry and Environment

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 1 – ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Ripe and unripe fruits (mango, orange, pawpaw, grape, lime etc)

2. Sour milk

3. Brightly coloured flowers or leaves (hibiscus, croton, ixora, allamanda, blue bells, etc.).

4. Chemicals (NaOH, KOH, HCl, H2SO4)

5. Distilled water

6. Acetone (propanone)

7. Ethanol

8. Filter paper

9. Motar/pestle

10. Litmus paper

11. Methyl orange

12. Phenolphthalein

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

 

1. define acids, bases and salts.

2. identify acids and bases.

describe the nature of proton in an aqueous solution.

4. explain neutralization reactions.

5. explain how an acid base indicator works.

6. use pH as a scale and discuss the importance of the pH value.

7. identify and prepare salts (normal, acidic, basic).

8. state properties of salts.

9. state the rules of solubility of salts in water.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Characteristics, preparations, reactions and uses of acids, bases, salts.

2. Relative acidity and alkalinity (the pH scale)

3. Deliquescent, efflorescent and hygroscopic substances.

4. Solubility of salts in water

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Provides different ripe and unripe fruits, sour milk, some common laboratory indicators.

2. Guide students to classify indicators into acidic or basic indicators.

3. Strictly supervises students to taste and observe the difference in taste between the ripe and unripe fruits.

4. Guides students to prepare coloured extracts from flowers as indicators.

5. Performs experiments to illustrate neutralization reaction.

6. Guides students in the preparation of salts.

7. Demonstrates efflorescence and Deliquescence and Hygroscope.

8. Demonstrates solubility of salts.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Identify acids and bases using laboartory indicators (methyl orange, phenolphthalein).

2. Prepare indicators from flower extracts.

 

3. Identify acids and bases using the prepared flower extracts as indicators.

4. Identify and prepare salts (normal, acidic, basic).

5. Perform experiment to illustrate the reactions of acids and bases.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. mention some common acids and bases.

2. list the characteristics of acids, bases.

3. list the different types of salts.

4. distinguish between the various places where the knowledge of pH value is put to use.

5. prepare salts by neutrlization reactions e.g. NaCl, CuSO4.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 2 – STANDARD SEPARATION TECHNIQUES FOR MIXTURES

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Water

2. Sand

3. Common salt

4. Iodine crystals

5. Sulphur powder

6. Filter paper

7. Ink

8. Separating funnel

Evaporating dish

10. Liebig condenser

11. Cubes of sugar

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state the different standard methods of separating mixtures and their individual applications.

2. manipulate different apparatus for separation techniques.

 

3. draw separation technique apparatus.

4. state the criteria for purity.

5. distinguish between pure and impure substances.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Classification of substances

2. Filtration, evaporation, decantation, floatation, frostation.

3. Crystallization and fractional crystallization

4. Distillation and fractional distillation

5. Precipitation

6. Magnesium

7. Chromatography

8. Sublimation

9. Pure and impure substances

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Guides students to understand underlying principles behind the choice of a separation technique for a particular mixture

 

2. Demonstrates the method of separation.

3. Demonstrates the determination of melting point for solids and boiling points for liquids.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. State the principles behind the choice of separation techniques.

2. Manipulate different apparatuses used in separating substances.

3. Draw seperation technique apparatuses.

4. Determine the melting point of ice and boiling point of water.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state the principles applied in the separation of mixtures;

2. state different standard methods of separating mixtures;

3. state the criteria for purity;

4. use appropriate techniques to separate a mixture.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 3 – WATER 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts (preparation of water, uses of water)

2. Water samples (river, well, tap etc)

3. Soap

4. Samples of contaminated water

5. Samples of hard water.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state sources of water.

2. state the properties of water.

3. describe the laboratory preparation of water.

 

4. distinguish between soft and hard water.

5. define pollution and list some water pollutants.

6. state the uses of water;

7. describe the procedure for the laboratory preparation of water.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Sources of water

2. Types of water (soft and hard water)

3. Water pollutants

4. Uses of water

5. Laboratory preparation of water.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Guides students to

  • identify properties of water. 
  • list sources of water.
  • list some water pollutants

2. Demonstrates causes of water hardness

3. Gives the laboratory properties of water as a reading assignment.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Bring different types of water samples.

2. Distinguish between,

  • pure and impure water samples based on colour, odour.
  • hard and soft water.

 

3. Participate in class discussion.

4. Read and report on the laboratory preparations of water.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state the properties of water;

2. list the types of water;

3. describe the laboratory preparation of water;

4. mention some water pollutants;

5. state the uses of water.

 

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