Chemistry Guides for SS 2 Chemical World – Acid Base Reactions, Chemical Reactions, Mass Volume Relationships and Periodic Table

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMICAL WORLD 

TOPIC 1 – ACID – BASE REACTIONS 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Distilled water or deionized water.

2. Titration apparatus (retort stand, beaker, burette, conical flask, pipette, white tile, etc).

3. Indicators

4. Weighing balance.

5. Acids

6. Bases

7. Petri-dish

8. Practical notebooks

9. Measuring cylinder

10. Funnel

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

 

1. define concentration, in mol dm-3 of solutions.

2. define standard solutions

3. explain relationship between concentrations and volumes of reacting substances.

4. mathematically express the relationship between the concentration in mol dm-3 and volume of a solution.

5. carry out acid-base titrations using appropriate indicators

6. record correctly titre values to two decimal places.

7. carry out relevant calculations from titrations results.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Simple acid base titrations.

2. Common indicators and their pH ranges.

3. Heat of neutralization (introductory).

4. Construction of wooden retort stand

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Guides students to:

  • prepare standard solutions.
  • identify appropriate indicators for acid-base indicators.

2. Displays and explain the apparatus necessary for carrying out simple titrations.

3. Demonstrates the process of acid-base titrations.

4. Guides students to carryout the acid base titration according to instructions.

5. Ensures students record properly and perform relevant calculations.

6. Makes arrangement for students to visit the Introductory Technology workshop to construct wooden retort stand.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Prepare standard solutions.

2. Carryout acid-base titration using given indicators.

3. Record correctly titre values to two decimal places.

 

4. Carry out relevant calculations from titre values.

5. Construct a wooden retort stand in conjunction with the Introductory Technology department as a project.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. Prepare standard solutions.

2. Carryout acid-base titration using given indicators.

3. Record correctly titre values to two decimal places.

4. Carry out relevant calculations from titre values.

5. Construct a wooden retort stand in conjunction with the Introductory Technology department as a project.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMICAL WORLD 

TOPIC 2 – CHEMICAL REACTIONS 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Common reagents like HCl, CuSO4, NaCl, NH4OH, NH4Cl etc.

2. Source of heat

 

3. Water

4. Test tubes

5. Beakers

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify reactants and products of any chemical reaction.

2. explain the terms reaction time and reaction rate; and the relationship between the two.

3. explain collision theory with respect to reaction time and reaction rate.

4. describe the influence of the following on chemical reaction rates – nature of substances; concentration/pressure, temperature and catalysts.

5. explain endothermic and exothermic reactions.

6. illustrate by use of a graph the energy changes in exothermic and endothermic reactions.

7. write equations for simple equilibrium reaction.

8. state Le Chatelier’s principle.

9. explain the influence of the following factors on the equilibrium of chemical reactions –

 

  • concentration
  • temperature
  • pressure

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Basic concepts: reactants, products, reaction time and reaction rate.

2. Introduction to collision theory

3. Factors affecting the rate of chemical reactions:- nature of substances; concentration/pressure, temperature, catalyst

4. Types of chemical reactions:

– endothermic and exothermic

5. Chemical equilibrium:- introduction using simple equations; Le Chatelier’s principles

6. Factors affecting equilibrium of chemical reaction:

 

  • concentration
  • temperature
  • pressure

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Guides the students to identify reactants and products of chemical reaction.

2. Uses simple experiments to illustrate:- the concept of reaction time and reaction rate; effects of the nature of substances, concentration/pressure temperature and catalyst on reaction rates; endothermic and exothermic reactions.

3. Initiates class discussion of the energy relationships in endothermic and exothermic reactions i.e. ΔG = ΔH – TΔS (graphical representations only).

4. Explains Le Chatelier’s principles.

5. Demonstrates the effects of changes in temperature, concentration and pressure on chemical reactions.

6. Guides students to write and balance equations for chemical reactions in equilibrium.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Name reactants and products of chemical reactions.

2. Watch teacher demonstration, and identify the reactants and products of the reactions.

 

3. Write and balance equations for the reactions.

4. Note and explain how changes in concentration, temperature, pressure, etc has affected the reaction time and rates.

5. Describe reaction as either endothermic or exothermic reactions by feeling the reaction vessel.

6. Participate in class discussion.

7. Listen to teacher’s explanation and ask and answer questions.

8. Assist the teacher to wash and arrange used apparatuses.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. Name reactants and products of chemical reactions.

2. Watch teacher demonstration, and identify the reactants and products of the reactions.

 

3. Write and balance equations for the reactions.

4. Note and explain how changes in concentration, temperature, pressure, etc has affected the reaction time and rates.

5. Describe reaction as either endothermic or exothermic reactions by feeling the reaction vessel.

6. Participate in class discussion.

7. Listen to teacher’s explanation and ask and answer questions.

8. Assist the teacher to wash and arrange used apparatuses.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMICAL WORLD 

TOPIC 3 – MASS VOLUME RELATIONSHIPS 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Students’ textbooks and workbooks

2. HCl, NaOH, magnesium ribbon, Copper, Copper Oxide, etc.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

 

1. explain the concepts of the mole, molar, s.t.p.; relative densities and relative molar mass (RMM)

2. solve problems involving reacting masses and volume in chemical reactions.

3. state the SI units of various basic quantities.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Basic concepts:

  • mole, molar quantities, molality
  • standard temperature and pressure (s.t.p.)
  • relative densities and relative molar mass

2. Calculations involving mass and volume.

3. SI units of quantities, i.e. length, mass, volume, etc.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Explains the concept of mole, molar, s.t.p. relative densities and relative molecular mass etc and their units.

 

2. Guides students to calculate:

  • masses of reactants and products
  • number of moles of reacting substances and products
  • relative densities of substances
  • molarity
  • molality
  • volumes of gas in chemical reactions.

3. Gives students practice questions.

4. Mark and review students’ assignments.

5. Guides students to deduce the SI units of quantities.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Calculate the masses, moles and volumes in chemical reactions.

2. Participates in class review exercises.

3. Calculate relative densities of substances.

 

4. Practically determine the mass of reactants and products of a given chemical reaction.

5. Derive SI units of quantities.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. define the mole, molar mass, molar volume, relative density, relative molar mass; molar solution and s.t.p.

2. compute the number of moles and molar masses of reactants and products from chemical equation of chemical reactions

3. calculate the masses and volume of substances in hypothetical chemical reactions

4. use appropriate units for expressing their answers

5. derive the SI units of given quantities.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMICAL WOLRD 

TOPIC 4 – PERIODIC TABLE 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Periodic table of elements

2. Blank periodic table template

 

3. Sodium metal

4. Magnesium ribbon

5. Aluminum metal

6. Heat source

7. Water

8. Glass trough

9. Beakers

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain the periodic law.

2. arrange common elements into groups (families) and periods.

3. distinguish between the families of elements on the periodic table.

4. discuss the changes in the properties of elements down the group and across periods.

 

5. discuss the relationship between ionization energy and electron affinity and the properties of elements down the groups and across periods.

6. explain the diagonal relationship in the properties of elements.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Periodic law

2. Blocks of elements:- metals, non-metals, metalloids and transition metals

3. Families: s-p-d-f- (according to groups I-VIII, i.e. Group IA – Alkali Metals, Group IIA – alkali earth and other family names)

4. Properties: changes in sizes and change down the group and across periods and accompanying changes in properties.

5. Diagonal relationships

6. Ionization energy and electron affinity changes down the group and across period.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Uses the periodic table template and the atomic structure of common elements to guide students to deduce the periodic law and identify and group elements into families based on shared characteristics.

 

2. Initiates and guides class discussions on:

  • atomic and ionic sizes
  • ionization energy and electron affinity
  • gradation in properties of elements down the groups and across periods
  • diagonal relationships.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Watch teacher demonstrations

2. Draws electronic configuration of the first twenty elements given their atomic numbers

3. Arrange elements on the periodic table and identify the following blocks of elements on the table: metals, non-metals, metalloids, transition metals

4. identify families of elements

5. Discuss,

a. the characteristics of the families of elements.

b. gradation in the properties of elements.

 

c. reactivity atomic and ionic sizes.

d. ionization energies.

e. electron affinity; down the groups and across the periods.

f. diagonal relationships of elements on the periodic table.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. state the periodic law.

2. group common elements into families (groups) and periods.

3. state with examples the distinguishing characteristics of the following blocks of metals, non-metals, metalloids, transition metals and of the following families Groups I – VIII and their family names. 

4. define the terms ionization energy and electron affinity.

 

5. illustrate changes in properties of elements down the groups and across periods.

6. describe the diagonal relationships in properties of elements in the periodic table.

 

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