Chemistry Guides for SS 2 Chemistry and Environment

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 1 – AIR 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Bunsen burner

2. Source of gas

3. Match stick/box

4. Candle stick

5. Alkaline Pyrogallo

6. Caustic soda

7. Deflagrating spoon

8. Magnesium ribbon

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

 

1. list the constituents of air.

2. list the percentage composition of air.

3. state the properties of air.

4. draw, label and explain the various zones of flame.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Air

  • constituents
  • percentage composition

2. Properties of air

3. Flame

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Performs experiments to show:

  • composition of air
  • properties of air

 

2. Lights the Bunsen burner, regulate the flame so as to produce the different zones of flame.

3. Guides students to draw and label the flame correctly.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Watch teachers demonstration of the determination of the percentage composition and properties of air, and write a report on the experiment.

2. Observe the Bunsen burner flame.

3. Draw and label structure of flame.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. list the constituents of air.

2. state the percentage composition of the various constituents of air.

3. state the properties of air.

4. draw the flame and label the different parts.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 2 – HALOGENS 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Periodic table

2. Table showing physical properties of halogens and similarities among halogens

3. Litmus paper(red and blue)

4. Water

5. Apparatus and reagents for the preparation of chlorine gas

6. Bromine

7. Iodine

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. write the electronic configuration of halogens (Cl2, Br2, I2).

2. state the physical properties of halogens and their gradation down the group.

3. state the chemical properties of halogens and their gradation down the group.

4. list some compounds of halogens.

 

5. state the uses of halogen.

6. describe the laboratory preparation of chlorine

7. demonstrate the bleaching action of chlorine and adduce the reason for the bleaching action.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Electronic configuration of halogens

2. Physical properties of halogens and gradation down the group

3. Chemical properties of halogens and gradation down the group

4. Compounds of halogens

5. Uses of halogens (Cl2, Br2, I2)

6. Preparation of chlorine

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Guides the students to write and draw the electron configuration of chlorine.

2. Sets up the apparatus and demonstrate the laboratory preparation of chlorine.

 

3. Performs simple experiments to illustrate the physical and chemical properties of halogens.

4. Explains the gradation of these properties down the group.

5. Illustrates the bleaching action of chloride

6. Leads class discussion on the uses of halogens.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Write and draw electron configuration of halogens.

2. Observe the experiment on the laboratory preparation of chlorine and record their observation correctly.

3. Draw the apparatus for the laboratory preparation of chlorine.

4. Demonstrate the bleaching action of chlorine.

5. Participate in class discussion

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. write and draw the electron structure of halogens

2. describe the laboratory preparation of chlorine

3. state the physical properties of halogens (Cl2, Br2, I2).

4. state the chemical properties of halogens.

5. explain the gradation of physical and chemical properties of halogen down the group.

6. name some natural compounds of halogen (e.g. NaCl, CaCl2, etc).

7. state the uses of halogens.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 3 – HYDROGEN 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Periodic table

2. Table showing physical properties of halogens and similarities among halogens

 

3. Litmus paper(red and blue)

4. Water

5. Apparatus and reagents for the preparation of chlorine gas

6. Bromine

7. Iodine

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. write and draw the electron configuration of hydrogen.

2. identify the isotopes of hydrogen and draw their electron configuration.

3. explain the unique position of hydrogen in the periodic table.

4. describe the laboratory and industrial methods for the preparation of hydrogen.

5. state the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen.

6. state the uses of hydrogen

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Hydrogen:

  • configuration and possible oxidation numbers
  • isotopes of hydrogen
  • unique position of hydrogen in the periodic table

2. Laboratory preparation of hydrogen

3. Industrial preparation of hydrogen

4. Physical and chemical properties of hydrogen

5. Uses of hydrogen

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Guides students to:

  • write and draw the electron configuration of hydrogen
  • name isotopes of hydrogen and write their electron configuration.

2. Explains the unique position of hydrogen on the periodic table.

3. Sets up apparatus for the laboratory preparation of hydrogen using an active metal (e.g. zinc) and an acid (e.g. H2SO4)2.

 

4. Explains the process for the industrial preparation of hydrogen2.

5. Performs simple experiments to show the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen2.

6. Guides class discussion of the uses of hydrogen.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Write and draw:

  • the electron configuration of hydrogen
  • structure of isotopes of hydrogen.

2. Record observations and draw apparatus for the laboratory preparation of hydrogen.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. describe the laboratory preparation of hydrogen.

2. list four methods for the industrial preparation of hydrogen.

 

3. state the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen.

4. list the uses of hydrogen.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 4 – NITROGEN 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts tabulating the properties of nitrogen group, laboratory preparation of nitrogen, nitrogen cycle

2. Periodic table

3. Glass with grease

4. Painted woodwork

5. Samples of fertilizer

6. Chemicals containing nitrogen e.g. HNO3, Conc. HCl, etc

7. Books, virtual libraries (internet)

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state the general properties of group VA elements

2. explain the laboratory preparation of nitrogen.

3. explain the industrial preparation of nitrogen from liquid air.

4. list the properties of nitrogen.

 

5. outline the uses.

6. list the oxides of nitrogen

7. explain the nitrogen cycle.

8. explain the Huber process for the preparation of ammonia.

9. state the uses of  ammonia

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. General properties of Nitrogen family-group VA elements

2. Laboratory preparation of nitrogen

3. Industrial preparation of nitrogen from liquid air

4. Properties of nitrogen

5. Uses of nitrogen

6. Nitrogen cycle

7. Compounds of nitrogen

a. oxides of nitrogen

b. ammonia

8. Test for ammonia

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Explains the general properties of the nitrogen family.

2. Demonstrates the laboratory preparation of nitrogen.

3. Guides students to record observations and draw appropriate diagrams on the laboratory preparation of nitrogen.

4. Explains the industrial preparation of nitrogen from liquid air.

5. Explains the properties of nitrogen and their gradation down the group.

6. Guides the students to find out the uses of nitrogen from textbook, internet, etc.

7. Guides the students to,

  • identify ammonia as a compound of nitrogen.
  • identify and name other compounds of nitrogen.

8. Demonstrates the test for ammonia gas using

(a) a damp red litmus paper

(b) Conc. HCl.

9. Demonstrates removal of stains on wood work using liquid ammonia

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Record observations and draw the laboratory apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen.

 

2. Students to remove paint from wood using liquid ammonia.

3. Carryout the comfirmatory tests for ammonia gas.

4. Participate in class discussion.

5. Find out the uses of nitrogen from books, internet and other sources.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. explain the laboratory preparation of nitrogen

2. list the properties of nitrogen

3. list the oxides of nitrogen

4. draw and explain the nitrogen cycle

5. explain the Huber process for the preparation of ammonia

6. state the uses of nitrogen

7. list the uses of ammonia

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 5 – OXIDATION-REDUCTION (REDOX) REACTIONS

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Students texts

2. The board

3. Flip charts 

4. Iron (II) oxide,

5. KMnO4etc.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define oxidation as : addition of oxygen; removal of hydrogen; process of electron loss; process of increase of oxidation number of a substance.

2. define reduction as; the reverse of any of the above processes.

3. calculate oxidation numbers of elements using a set of arbitrary rules viz:

 

(a) oxidation number of free elements = 0

(b) oxidation number of oxygen in any compound is -2, except in perioxides where it is -1

(c) oxidation number of H is +1, except in hydrides where it is -1

(d) oxidation number of a neutral molecule or compound is zero e.g. H2SO4 = 0 etc.

4. use oxidation numbers to name inorganic compounds, to include number of oxygen atom and water molecules (if hydrated)

5. determine the oxidation states number of common elements in their compounds

6. define oxidizing and reducing agents in terms of:

  • addition and removal of oxygen and hydrogen respectively
  • loss and gain of electron
  • change in oxidation numbers/states

7. write and balance redox equation

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Oxidation – definitions

2. Reduction – definitions

 

3. Redox reactions

4. Oxidation numbers of central elements in some compounds

5. Connection of oxidation numbers with IUPAC name

6. Oxidizing and reducing agents

7. Redox equations

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Guides students to define oxidation and reduction

2. Guides students to calculate oxidation numbers, using the rules set under objectives (e.g. to calculate oxidation numbers of central atom in H2SO, HNO3, KCIO) and hence give their IUPAC names

3. Guides students to name inorganic compounds e.g. Pb(NO3)2, FeSO4.7H2O, [Cu(NH3)2]2+ etc.

4. Guides students identify the process of oxidation and reduction in a given redox reaction e.g. X4 + Y → X2+ + Y2+.

5. Guides students to write the formula of a compound giving its IUPAC name, e.g. Iron (II) trioxosulphate (IV) –

 

  • identify reductants and oxidants in a redox reaction
  • write equations for half reactions and overall reactions using IUPAC system
  • balance redox equations.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. note the various definitions of oxidation and reduction.

2. note the set of rules to enable one calculate oxidation numbers of central atoms in compounds.

3. write IUPAC names of compounds by first calculating the oxidation numbers of the central atom.

4. identify and balance half reactions in a given redox reaction.

5. write and balance redox equations.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. define oxidation and reduction.

2. explain redox reactions.

3. calculate oxidation numbers of central atoms in inorganic compouds and hence give their IUPAC names.

4. identify oxidation and reduction half reactions in redox reactions.

5. write formula of a compound given its IUPAC name.

6. write and balance redox equations.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 6 – OXYGEN 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Periodic table

2. Picture showing a welder at work

3. Laboratory apparatus and reagents for the preparation of oxygen

4. Matches

5. Splint

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain the general properties of oxygen group in periodic table.

2. write and draw the electronic structure of oxygen and explain its bonding capacity.

3. describe the laboratory and industrial methods for the preparation of oxygen.

4. state the physical and chemical properties of oxygen.

5. list the compounds of oxygen.

6. explain oxidation as addition of oxygen and give examples of such reactions.

7. state the uses of oxygen.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. General properties of oxygen group

2. The electronic structure and bonding capacity of oxygen

3. Laboratory and industrial preparation of oxygen

 

4. Physical and chemical properties of oxygen

5. Reaction of oxygen (oxidation)

6. Compounds of oxygen

7. Uses of oxygen

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Explains the general properties of oxygen group in the periodic table.

2. Guides students to: 

  • write and draw the electron configuration of oxygen
  • state the uses of oxygen.

3. Sets up apparatus and demonstrates the laboratory preparation of oxygen using hydrogen perioxide and manganese (IV) oxide as catalyst.

4. Demonstrates the test for oxygen using a glowing splint.

5. Performs simple experiments to demonstrate the physical and chemical properties of oxygen.

6. Explains oxidation as addition of oxygen.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Write and draw electron configuration of oxygen.

2. Observe the experiment on the laboratory preparation of oxygen.

 

3. Make and label a drawing of the apparatus used.

4. Record their observations correctly in their practical notebook.

5. Test for oxygen using a glowing splint.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. write and draw the electron configuration of oxygen.

2. describe the laboratory preparation of oxygen.

3. describe the fractional distillation of liquid air.

4. dictate the physical and chemical properties of oxygen.

5. list the uses of oxygen.

6. write and balance equations of reactions of oxygen with other elements. e.g. Mg, Fe, etc.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 7 – SULPHUR 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Charts (showing the allotropes of sulphur)

2. Sulphur ointment

 

3. Sulphur pellets or flower of sulphur

4. Chart on the contact process for the preparation of H2SO4

5. H2SO4 (car battery acid)

6. Matches

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state the general properties of group VIA elements.

2. write and draw the electron configuration of sulphur.

3. explain the meaning of allotropy.

4. identify the allotropes of sulphur.

5. state the uses of sulphur.

6. name some common compounds of sulphur.

7. determine the oxidation states of sulphur in its major compounds.

8. describe the industrial preparation of H2SO4 by the contact process.

9. state the uses of H2SO4.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. General properties of group VIA elements

2. Electron structure of sulphur

 

3. Allotropes of sulphur

4. Uses of sulphur

5. Compounds of sulphur

6. Industrial preparation of H2SO4

7. Uses of H2SO4

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Explains the general properties of group VIA elements.

2. Guides students to write the electron configuration of sulphur.

3. Explains the meaning of allotropy and guides students to identify allotropes of sulphur and their uses.

4. Guides the students to draw correctly and explain the contact process for the manufacture of H2SO4.

5. Leads students on excursion to a tyre manufacturing industry..

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Listen and participate in class discussion.

2. Write and draw the electron structure of sulphur.

 

3. Draw and describe the contact.

4. Go on excursion to a tyre manufacturing industry to see the uses of sulphur.

5. Prepare sulphur ointments.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. write and draw the electron configuration of sulphur.

2. list and draw the allotropes of sulphur.

3. list the oxides of sulphur.

4. state the uses of sulphur.

5. explain the contact process for the manufacture of H2SO4.

6. list the uses of H2SO4.

 

CHEMISTRY

THEME – CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT 

TOPIC 4 – WATER 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Samples of hard water

2. Washing soda

3. Source of heat

 

4. Distillation apparatus

5. Sodium chloride

6. Water

7. Weighing balance

8. Evaporating dish

9. Water bath

10. Kerosene

11. Oil stained piece of cloth

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. draw and explain the structure of water.

2. define the following concepts: solute, solvent, solution.

3. define solubility and state the rules of solubility in water.

 

4. explain factors that affect solubility.

5. explain the causes of hardness of water.

6. explain the methods employed in the removal of hardness.

7. explain methods used in purifying water.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Structure of water

2. Solubility (Basic concepts: solute, solvent, solution)

3. Solubility of different substances

4. Factors that affect solubility/uses of solubility curves

5. Hardness of water and removal of hardness

6. Purification of water

7. Municipal water supply

8. Production of distilled water

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Perform experiment to help students determine the solubility of substances (uses sodium chloride in water at room temperature).

 

2. Demonstrates the application of solubility (removal of stains).

3. Demonstrates the removal of hardness in water:

  • using washing soda
  • by boiling.

4. Explains the various stages in treatment of water for consumption.

.5. Leads students on excursion to water works (observe water distillation process).

6. Demonstrates the laboratory distillation of water.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Prepare the solution of common substances.

2. Remove oil stain on cloth using kerosene.

3. Carry out experiments on the removal of hardness by boiling and addition of washing soda.

4. Observe, record, draw and explain the process of obtaining distilled water in the water works.

5. Explain and draw the process of obtaining distilled water in the laboratory.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. draw and explain the structure of water

2. list and explain the different types of solutions.

3. list and explain the factors that affect the solutions.

 

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