Food Nutrition and Nutritional Deficiency Diseases | The Effects of Family Size on Nutrition

LESSON – FOOD NUTRITION AND NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES 

TOPIC

  • Concept of Food and Nutrition
  • Source of Food Nutrients
  • Meaning of Nutritional Deficiency Diseases
  • Characteristics of Nutritional Deficient People
  • Family Size and Its Effects on Nutrition

 

INTRODUCTION

Foods are solid or liquid substances that gives essential nutrients to the body.

Nutrition is the substance in food and how it works in the body.

 

CONCEPT OF FOOD AND NUTRITION 

Food and Nutrition are the essential substance in food that help the body to function and grow well.

The concept of food and nutrition is the same as food nutrition.

 

SOURCES OF FOOD NUTRIENTS 

The source of food nutrients needs for the body to grow and function well are as follows:

1. Carbohydrates

2. Proteins

3. Fats and Oils

4. Minerals

5. Vitamins

6. Water

 

 

LESSON 2 – SOURCE OF FOOD NUTRIENTS

1. CARBOHYDRATES 

Carbohydrates are the food substances that give energy to the body.

They are also known as energy giving foods.

Good examples of foods that give our bodies energy are as follows:

  • Rice
  • Yam
  • Bread
  • Wheat
  • Maize
  • Sweet potatoes
  • Amala
  • Eba/garri, etc.

 

2. PROTEINS

Proteins are the food substances that build the body.

They are also called body building foods.

Good examples of foods that build our bodies are as follows:

  • Beef
  • Fish
  • Eggs
  • Cow milk
  • Yoghurt
  • Beans
  • Pork, etc.

 

3. VITAMINS

Vitamins are the food substances that protect the body from getting sick or contacting diseases.

Good examples of foods that protect our bodies are as follows:

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables

 

4. MINERALS

Minerals are the food substances that makes the body to develop and function normally.

Good examples of foods that make our bodies to develop and function well are as follows:

  • Milk
  • Salts
  • Red meat
  • Fish
  • Potatoes
  • Rice, etc.

 

5. FATS AND OIL 

Fats and oils are the food substances that help to build nerve tissue and regulate hormones

Good examples of foods that help to build nerve tissue and regulate hormones are as follows:

  • Salmon fish
  • Groundnut
  • Olive oil
  • Skimmed milk
  • Avocado
  • Peanut butter
  • Sardines, etc.

 

6. WATER 

This is very important. About 97% of our body is water.

Water helps the digestion of food and removal of waste products from the body through excretion, urinating, respiration and perspiration (sweating).

It also helps the flow of blood.

 

NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES 

The body needs different vitamins and minerals that are essential for both body development and preventing disease.

The main causes of nutritional deficiencies include a poor diet that lacks essential nutrients for the body such as proteins and vitamins.

Nutritional deficiency diseases are as follows:

  • Kwashiorkor
  • Rickets
  • Pellagra
  • Scurvy

 

1. KWASHIORKOR 

Kwashiorkor is one the world nutritional deficiency diseases caused by lack of protein.

It is also known as protein malnutrition.

The symptoms are distended abdomen, enlarged liver, thinning of the hair and coarse hair texture, easily dislodged teeth, and dermatitis.

 

2. RICKETS 

Rickets are the nutritional deficiency diseases caused by lack of vitamin D or calcium.

The symptoms are soft and weak bones in children.

 

3. PELLAGRA 

Pellagra are nutritional deficiency diseases caused by lack of vitamin B3 (low levels of niacin).

The symptoms are known as three Ds – dementia, diarrhea, and dermatitis.

 

4. SCURVY 

Scurvy is the nutritional deficiency disease caused by lack of vitamin C in the diet.

The symptoms are weakness, anemia, gum disease, and skin problems.

 

Foods are solid or liquid substances that gives essential nutrients to the body while nutrition is the substance in food and how it works in the body.

Food and Nutrition are the essential substance in food that help the body to function and grow well.

The concept of food and nutrition is the same as food nutrition.

Our bodies need essential food nutrients for growth, development, function well to preventing sickness and diseases. 

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENT PEOPLE 

The main causes of nutritional deficiencies include a poor diet that lacks essential food nutrients for the body.

The characteristics of people with nutritional deficiency diseases are as follows:

1. Sickness

2. Deformity

3. Unstable emotion

4. Impaired growth

5. Partial blindness

6. Muscle weakness

7. Twitches or cramps

8. Constipation

9. Tingling and numbness

10. Abnormal heart rhythm or palpitations

 

FAMILY SIZE AND ITS EFFECT ON NUTRITION 

A family is a man and a woman living together as husband and wife with their children.

The man is the head of the family, and provides food, dress, shelter, security, care, education and overall welfare of all members of the family.

The woman is to help by preparing food, giving moral training and care to everybody in the family.

To compare family of smaller and large family with the salary structure –

The smaller the size of the family, the better for effective care and adequate provision of food, clothes, care and shelter.

A large family may be compelled to reduce the quantity and quality of everything, including the essential or basic things of life.

In a large family, there may be lack of balanced diets, lack of care, overcrowding and inadequate supply of basic needs.

Increased family size may adversely affect the nutritional status of every member of the household, including preschool children, because it may be associated with decreased per capita human inputs.

In other words, the allocation of food per child is likely to decrease with the increase in the number of children, which, in turn, may adversely affect the nutritional status of children and the entire family.

 

LESSON EVALUATION 

Answer all the questions.

1. describe the concepts of food and nutrition.

2. state 6 sources of food Nutrients.

3. explain the meaning of nutritional deficiency diseases.

4. mention 3 nutritional deficiency diseases.

5. state the causes of the following diseases,

  • Kwashiorkor
  • Rickets
  • Pellagra
  • Scurvy

6. recommended appropriate food nutrients for children suffering from the following diseases,

  • Kwashiorkor
  • Rickets
  • Pellagra
  • Scurvy

7. discuss the effects of family size on nutrition.

8. state 5 characteristics of nutritional deficient people.

 

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