Electricity As A Form of Energy and Types of Electricity | Methods of Generating Electricity

LESSON – BASIC ELECTRICITY

TOPIC

• Introduction
• Electricity as a Form of Energy
• Types of Electricity (Static and Current)
• Methods of Generating Electricity

INTRODUCTION

Electricity is very useful at home, offices, in school, etc.

Most of our home appliances depend on electricity.

For example, if there is no electricity, the following items will not work – television set, water heater, etc.

The Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), formerly the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA), is an organisation governing the use of electricity in Nigeria.

ELECTRICITY AS A FORM OF ENERGY

Electricity is a form of energy that can give things the ability to move and work.

Electricity makes the following to work or move: bulbs, torch light, television, toy cars, machines like cars, etc.

These energy can be produced by and friction, magnets and chemicals.

TYPES OF ELECTRICITY

There are two types of electricity,

1. Static electricity

2. Current electricity

STATIC ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRIC CURRENT

ACTIVITY 1

Teacher organizes the pupils in groups or pairs and guides them,

• to rub their biro case on the sleeve of their shirt vigorously and quickly, and bring it near a small piece of plain paper.

Expected responses – There is an attraction between biro case and the small piece of plain paper.

Teacher’s remark – The attraction is caused by static electricity.

This is one of the types of electricity.

ACTIVITY 2

Teacher gives each of the group or pair a battery, wire and bulb and lets them,

• use a battery and wire to light a bulb.
• what is your observation when the wire is connected or disconnected from the battery?
• what happens when a torch light is switched on and off?
• What happens when a television wire is removed from the socket?

Excepted responses,

• The bulb goes off.
• The same happened when you switched off a torch light, but when you put it on, it gives light.
• The television starts working when connected and stops working when disconnected.

STATIC ELECTRICITY

Static Electricity is the contact between equal amount of protons and electrons.

A proton is a positively subatomic particle while electron is a negatively charged subatomic particle.

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

Current Electricity is a flow of electric charge across an electrical field.

METHODS OF GENERATING ELECTRICITY

Electricity generation is the process of generating electrical power from other sources of primary energy.

Electricity can be generated using the following:

1. Hydro (water) – Kainji dam

2. Solar Electricity

3. Electric Machines (Generator)

4. Electric Battery

5. Wind Electricity

6. Coal Electricity

7. Wave Electricity

1. HYDROELECTRIC

Hydroelectric is the electricity produced by moving water.

For example, Kainji dam.

2. SOLAR ELECTRICITY

Solar electricity is the conversion of sunlight into electricity through photovoltaic (PV) panels or through concentrate solar radiation or both.

3. ELECTRIC MACHINE (GENERATOR)

Electric machine is the conversion of mechanical energy into electricity using generator machine.

4. ELECTRIC BATTERY

Electric battery is the collection one or more chemical energy pack to generate electric flow in a circuit.

5. WIND ELECTRICITY

Wind power is the use of wind turbines to generate electricity.

6. COAL ELECTRICITY

Coal power is the burning of coal to generate electricity in thermal power station.

7. WAVE ELECTRICITY

Wave electricity is the use of equipment on the surface of the ocean to convert energy generated by ocean wave into mechanical energy, then to electricity power.

MEANING OF CONDUCTORS AND NON CONDUCTORS

CONDUCTORS

Conductors are materials that allow energy (current) to flow through them.

For example, wire, iron, pin, spoon, etc.

They are called electric conductors.

NON CONDUCTORS

Non conductors are materials that do not allow energy (current) to flow through them.

For example, paper, broom, thread, cloth, etc.

COMPONENTS OF ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

The connection between batteries and bulb with wire to produce light is called electric circuit.

There are three (3) components of electric circuit,

1. Source – batteries

2. Electric conductors – wire

3. Resistor – the switch (on/off)

USES OF ELECTRICITY

Electricity is an essential part of modern life and people used electricity for the following:

1. Heating and Cooling water.

2. Water Heater

3. Washer and Dryer

4. Lights

5. Refrigerator

6. Electric Oven

7. Dishwasher

8. Decoration – Christmas lights

9. Cooking

10. Operating all our home appliances – television, computer, radio, fan, pressing iron, etc.

11. Operating machinery and public transportation systems.

LESSON EVALUATION

Answer all the questions in section A and B.

SECTION A – OBJECTIVES

1. _______ is a form of energy that can give things the ability to move and work.

A. Television

B. Gas cooker

C. Electricity

2. _______ and _______ are the types of electricity.

A. Static and hydropower

B. Current and wave

C. Current and static

3. _______ is the contact between equal amount of protons and electrons.

A. Current electricity

B. Electric battery

C. Static electricity

4. _______ is a positively subatomic particle while _______ is a negatively charged subatomic particle.

A. Proton, electron

B. Electron and proton

C. Promo and electric

5. _______ is a flow of electric charge across an electrical field.

A. Current electricity

B. Electric battery

C. Static electricity

6. _______ is the process of generating electrical power from other sources of primary energy.

A. Electricity generation

B. Static generation

C. Current generation

7. _______ is the electricity produced by moving water.

A. wave power

B. hydropower

C. solar power

8. Kainji dam is a good example of _______.

A. wave power

B. hydropower

C. solar power

9. _______ is the conversion of sunlight into electricity through photovoltaic (PV) panels or through concentrate solar radiation or both.

A. wave power

B. hydropower

C. solar power

10. _______ is the conversion of mechanical energy into electricity using generator machine.

A. Solar

B. Generator

C. Battery

11. _______ is the collection one or more chemical energy pack to generate electric flow in a circuit.

A. Solar

B. Generator

C. Battery

12. _______ is the use of wind turbines to generate electricity.

A. Wave power

B. Coal

C. Wind power

13. _______ is the burning of coal to generate electricity in thermal power station.

A. Wave power

B. Coal

C. Wind power

14. _______ is the use of equipment on the surface of the ocean to convert energy generated by ocean wave into mechanical energy, then to electricity power.

A. Wave power

B. Coal

C. Wind power

15. Electricity is very useful at home, offices, in school, etc. because most of our home appliances depend on electricity. For example, if there is no electricity, the following items will not work – television set, water heater, etc.

A. False

B. True

16. PHCH stands for ______________.

17. NEPA stands for ______________.

18. PHCH was formerly ______________.

19. PHCN is an organisation governing the use of _______ in Nigeria.

20. _______ as a form of energy can be produced by friction, magnets and chemicals.

18. PHCH was formerly ______________.

19. PHCN is an organisation governing the use of _______ in Nigeria.

20. _______ as a form of energy can be produced by friction, magnets and chemicals.

SECTION B – THEORY

1. Name types of electricity.

2. Describe how electricity is generated and conducted from one point to another.

3. differentiate between static and electric current.

4. state 5 methods of generating electricity.

5. differentiate between electric conductors and non conductors.

state 5 examples of the following:

6. electric conductors

7. non conductors

8. explain the meaning of electric circuit.

9. mention the 3 components of electric circuit.

10. make a simple electric circuit.