# Mathematics Guides for JSS 1 Number and Numeration

**MATHEMATICS **

**THEME – NUMBER AND NUMERATION**

**TOPIC 1 – FRACTIONS **

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

Charts of equivalent fractions, charts of fractions, flash cards, conversion charts of percentages and fractions.

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify equivalent fractions of any given fractions.

2. apply equivalent fractions in sharing of commodities, e.g food, money, etc.

3. solve problems in quantitative aptitude reasoning in equivalent fractions.

4. find equivalence of any given fraction.

5. arrange given fractions either in ascending or descending order.

6. convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.

7. convert fractions to percentages and percentages to fractions.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. Identifying equivalent fractions.

2. Quantitative aptitude reasoning.

3. Equivalent fractions.

4. Ordering of fractions.

5. Conversion of fractions to decimals and vice versa.

6. Conversion of fractions to percentages and vice versa.

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

Teacher’s Activities,1. Leads students to recognize that 1⁄2, 2⁄4, 4⁄8, are equivalent fractions i.e. 1⁄2 = 2⁄4 = 4⁄8

2. Guides students to apply the equivalent fractions in sharing of commoditites e.g food, money, etc.

3. Leads students to solve problems in quantitative aptitude involving equivalent fractions.

4. Guides students to discover the formula for obtaining an equivalent fraction of a given fraction.

5. Leads students to solve problems using the above formula.

6. Leads students to arrange given fractions in ascending or descending order of magnitude.

7. Leads students to convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.

8. Guides students to convert fractions to percentages and percentage to fraction.

Student’s Activities,1. Recognize that 1⁄2, 2⁄4, and 4⁄8 are equivalent fractions.

2. Apply equivalent fractions in sharing commodities, e.g food, money etc.

3. Solve problems on quantitative aptitude in equivalent fractions.

4. State and write the relationship or formula as given.

5. Solve problems using the given formula.

6. Arrange fractions in ascending or descending order.

7. Convert fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.

8. Convert fractions to percentages and percentages to fractions.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to,

1. solve problems on equivalent fractions.

2. solve problems on quantitative aptitude in equivalent fractions.

3. find equivalence of any given fraction, using the given formula.

4. solve problems on ordering of given fractions.

5. convert given fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.

6. convert any fraction to percentages and vice versa.

**MATHEMATICS **

**THEME – NUMBER AND NUMERATION**

**TOPIC 2 – LCM AND HCF **

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

1. Numbers charts.

2. HCF chart containing worked examples.

3. HCF and LCM Charts.

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify common multiples of two or more whole numbers.

2. find the LCM of whole numbers.

3. identify common factors of whole number.

4. find the HCF of whole numbers.

5. identify the difference between LCM and HCF.

6. solve problems on quantitative aptitude involving LCM and HCF whole numbers.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

1. LCM of whole numbers.

2. HCF of whole numbers.

3. LCM and HCF of given whole numbers.

4. Quantitative reasoning.

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

Teacher’s Activities,1. Leads students to identify common multiples of two or more whole numbers.

2. Leads students to solve problems involving LCM by factor method, multiple method and index method.

3. Leads students to identify common factors of two or more whole numbers using common factor and prime factor methods.

4. guides students to find the HCF of some whole numbers e.g HCF of 15 and 80.

5. leads students to identify the difference between LCM and HCF.

6. Guides students in prime factorization to express a given number as the product of its prime factors as follows: 28 = 2 × 14 = 2 × 2 × 7. Therefore, the prime factors of 28 are 2 and 7

7. Leads students to solve problems on quantitative aptitude.

Student’s Activities,1. Identify common multiples of given numbers.

2. Solve problems involving LCM of two or three whole numbers using the three different methods.

3. Write common factors and highest common factors of a given set of numbers.

4. Express whole numbers as prime factors.

5. Solve some given problems to find the HCF of whole numbers.

6. Identify the difference between LCM and HCF.

7. Solve related problems on quantitative aptitude.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to,

1. Find the common multiples of given whole numbers.

2. Find the LCM of given whole numbers.

3. find the HCF of given whole numbers.

4. express given whole numbers as product of their prime factors.

5. solve problems on quantitative involving LCM and HCF.

**MATHEMATICS **

**THEME – NUMBER AND NUMERATION**

**TOPIC 3 – WHOLE NUMBERS**

**INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS**

1. Charts of numbers in millions and billions, flash cards, etc.

2. Charts of numbers in millions and billions, newspapers.

3. Flash cards, etc.

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES **

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. count and write in millions and billions.

2. count and write in trillions.

3. apply the counting, writing, and reading of large numbers in everyday life.

4. solve problems in quantitative aptitude reasoning using large nu mbers.

**CONTENTS OF THE LESSON**

**FOCUS LESSONS **

Counting in:

1. Millions and billions.

2. Trillions.

3. Quantitative reasoning.

**LESSON PRESENTATION**

Teacher’s Activities,1. leads students to write and read in millions and billions.

2. leads students to use counting charts to count in trillions.

3. guides students in counting, writing and reading in large quanties.

4. leads students to solve some problems on quantitative aptitude.

Student’s Activities,1. Count, write and read from 99,990 to 1,000,000 in hundreds and thousands.

3. Count, write and read in trillions.

4. Count, write and read in large quantities.

**LESSON EVALUATION**

Students to,

1. count, write and read in millions and billions.

2. count, write and read in trillions.

3. solve problems on quantitative aptitude using large numbers.