Meaning and State of Matters | Atoms as Fundamental Building Block of Matter | Changes of State

 

LESSON – MATTERS AND ATOMS

TOPIC 
  • Meaning of Matter
  • State and Classes of Matter
  • Atoms as Fundamental Building Block of Matter
  • Properties of States of Matters
  • Changes of State

 

INTRODUCTION

Matter is around.

Everything around us is made of matter – both living and non living made up of matter.

The air, water, soil, rocks, plants, animals and even people are examples of matter.

 

MEANING OF MATTER 

Matter is everything around us that occupies space and has mass.

 

Living and non living things are classified as matters in term of solids, liquids, and gases.

 

IDENTIFICATION OF MATTER

Matter is everything around us.

Matter includes the air we breathe, water we drink, food we eat, crops we plant, animals we rear, etc. even our own body.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER 

Matter can be classified as –

1. Living and non living things

2. Solid, liquid and gas

 

STATES OF MATTER

Matter exists in several different forms, called states.

There are three (3) States of matter,

1. Solid

2. Liquid

3. Gas

 

1. SOLID FORM

Solid matter is any object that has its own form and shape.

 

Examples of solid objects are floors, pencils, plants, trees, cars, skin, books, ice, chairs, computers, etc.

 

2. LIQUID FORM

Liquid matter takes the shape of its container.

It takes the shape of any object – cup, bowl, bottle, etc. that holds it.

Examples of liquid are water, juice, oil, pap, tea, blood, kerosene, groundnut oil, etc.

 

3. GAS FORM 

Gas is any substance like the air we breathe, steam from boiling water, smoke from the firewood, or exhaust from cars.

 

ATOMS AS FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING OF MATTER 

The basic fundamental building blocks that make up matter are called atoms.

When two or more atoms stick together, they formed a molecule.

Molecules are made up of one or more atoms.

Atoms are the basic units of matter.

 

Everything in the universe apart from energy is made of matter therefore atoms make up everything in the universe.

It is the smallest particle of a substance that has all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance.

 

An atom consists of electrons, protons and neutrons.

  • The proton is a positively charged particle.
  • The electron is a negatively charged particle.
  • The neutron doesn’t have any charge.

The proton is a positively charged particle surrounded by one or more negatively charged particles called electrons.

 

PROPERTIES OF SOLID, LIQUID AND GAS 

PROPERTIES OF SOLID MATTER 

Solid matter is any object that has its own form and shape.

The properties of solid matter are as follows:

  • It has a fixed shape and volume.
  • It cannot be compressed.
  • It has high density.
  • It is heavy. It cannot completely fill a container.
  • It cannot flow.

Examples of solid objects are floors, pencils, plants, trees, cars, skin, books, ice, chairs, computers, etc.

 

PROPERTIES OF LIQUID MATTER 

Liquid matter takes the shape of its container.

It takes the shape of any object – cup, bowl, bottle, etc. that holds it.

Examples of liquid are water, juice, oil, pap, tea, blood, kerosene, groundnut oil, etc.

The properties of liquid matter are as follows:

  • It has a fixed volume but no fixed shape.
  • It takes the shape of the container in which they are placed.
  • It cannot be compressed like solid matters.
  • It has moderate to high density usually less than solid matters.
  • It does not fill a container completely.
  • It glows easily.

 

PROPERTIES OF GAS MATTER

Gas is any substance like the air we breathe, steam from air, steam, smoke from the firewood, exhaust from cars, etc.

 

The properties of gas matter are as follows:

  • It neither has a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.
  • It can be completely compressed.
  • It has a low density.
  • It can fill a container completely.
  • It flows easily like liquid.

 

CHANGES OF STATE 

A change of state is a physical change in a matter.

The physical changes are reversible changes that do not require any changes in the chemical makeup of the matter.

The process of changes of state are as follows:

1. Melting

2. Freezing

3. Condensation

4. Evaporation

5. Sublimation

 

1. MELTING 

Melting is the process of changing substance from the solid state to liquid state.

For example, solid ice to liquid water.

 

2. FREEZING 

Freezing is the process of changing from the liquid state to the solid state.

For example, liquid water to solid ice.

 

3. CONDENSATION 

Condensation is the process of changing substance from the gaseous state to the liquid state.

For example, steam to liquid water.

 

4. EVAPORATION 

Evaporation is the process of changing substance from the liquid state to the gaseous state.

For example, liquid water to steam.

 

5. SUBLIMATION 

Sublimation is the transition from the solid state into a gaseous state without becoming liquid.

 

PERIODIC TABLE

The periodic table is also known the periodic table of elements.

Periodic table is arrangement of chemical elements from the lowest atomic number (hydrogen) to the element with the highest atomic number (oganesson).

 

The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element.

There are 118 known chemical elements.

There are 92 chemical elements found in nature.

Additional 20 elements are created by the scientists.

While the remaining are much more common than others.

The first ten elements with their symbols and atomic number in the periodic table are tabulated below:

 

LESSON EVALUATION 

Answer all the questions:

 

1. explain the meaning of matter.

2. state 3 form of matter with appropriate examples.

3. differentiate between solid and liquid matter with appropriate examples.

4. give 4 examples of gas form of matter.

5. discuss atoms as fundamental building block of matter.

6. mention the properties of solid, liquid and gas.

7. analyze how substance changes state.

8. explain melting, freezing, evaporation, condensation and sublimation.

8. state the first ten elements on the periodic table with their symbols.

 

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