An electoral system is also known as voting process. It is a set of rules and regulations that determine how elections and referendums are conducted. The whole system includes parties registration, voter registration, political campaign, accreditations, voting and declaration of results and dispute resolution.
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION SYSTEM
Proportional representation electoral system where the number of representatives (legislators) elected is directly determined by the number of votes candidates receive in an election.
That’s, the number of representatives is equal to the number of votes cast or support. For example, if a party gained 60% of the total votes, a perfectly proportional system would allow them to gain 60% of the seats.
TYPES OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION SYSTEM
There are five main types of proportional representation – single transferable voting system, list voting system, single non transferable voting system, limited voting system and cumulative voting system.
1. Single Transferable Voting System – In a single transferable voting system, voters rank their choice of candidates on the ballot in order of preference. The candidate with the highest preference is declared the winner and its excess votes is transfer to the second preferable candidate.
2. Single Non Transferable Voting System – Single non transferable voting System is similar to single transferable voting system. The difference is that the excess votes of the winner is not transferable to the second ballot.
3. List Voting System – List voting system is a slight difference of the single transferable vote system.
4. Limited Voting System – Limited voting electoral system is a system that allows voters to votes for only a limited number of candidates.or less than the number of candidates are required. For example, if there are ten seats to be filled, the voters are allowed to vote for nine or less.
5. Cumulative Voting System – In cumulative voting electoral system, the number of ballot papers is equal to the number of representatives given to voters. The candidates with the highest number of votes declared winner.
ADVANTAGES OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION SYSTEM
1. The candidate with highest votes is declared winner.
2. There is a good indication between representation and votes cast.
3. It gives the voters sense of belonging.
4. The candidate with best qualities emerge the winner.
5. It protests the interest of the minority and majority.
6. It gives the voters wide choice representatives.
DISADVANTAGES OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION SYSTEM
1. It is too expensive and complex to operate.
2. It encourages manipulation by some political forces.
3. It leads to political instability.
4. It focuses on proportionality instead of responsibility.