# Basic Science Guides JSS 3 You and Energy

Basic Science Guides JSS 3 You and Energy – Electrical Energy, Light Energy, Sound Energy, Radioactivity and Magnetic

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND ENERGY

###### TOPIC 1 – ELECTRICAL ENERGY

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Chart showing direction of electron flow

2. Battery, connecting wires, key, rheostat, torch bulbs

3. Ammeter and voltmeter

4. Chart of house wiring

5. A wired house

6. Chart or model of electric meter

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. indicate the direction of electron flow in a circuit.

2. set up series and parallel circuits when materials are provided.

3. connect ammeter and voltmeter to a series or parallel circuit and read their values.

4. state the functions of some materials in the house circuit.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

1. Concept of electron flow

2. Circuits series and parallel

3. Ammeter and voltmeter

4. House circuit – fuse and circuit breaker

5. Electric meter reading and billing

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. provides a chart showing electron flow for discussion.

2. provides materials and guides students to set up series and parallel.

3. provides ammeter and voltmeter and guides students to connect them to a series or parallel circuit.

4. guides students to recognize that houses are wired in parallel and discuss the functions of fuse and circuit breakers with students and relate them to overloading.

5. provides chart and guides students to practice reading the meter and calculate cost of electrical energy consumed.

6. organizes a trip to a wired house.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. recognize the direction of electron flow in a circuit.

2. set up series and parallel circuits with materials provided.

3. connect ammeter and voltmeter in the circuit and read their values.

4. recognize that houses are wired in parallel.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. indicate the direction of electron flow in a circuit.

2. set up series and parallel circuits and distinguish between them.

3. explain the functions of ammeter and voltmeter in a circuit.

4. state how houses are wired.

5. describe the functions of fuse and circuit breakers.

8. calculate energy consumed.

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND ENERGY

###### TOPIC 2 – LIGHT ENERGY

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Water beaker

2. Straight stick

3. Coin

4. Chart or model of the eye

5. Source of light

6. Prism

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain the concepts of reflection and refraction.

2. illustrate apparent depth and explain its dangers to swimmers.

3. describe how we see things.

4. explain the concept of dispersion and use it to interpret the rainbow.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

1. The concept of reflection

2. Refraction of light

3. Apparent depth

4. Vision

5. Dispersion and Rainbow

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. guides students on the activity to explain refraction.

2. leads students to observe a coin dropped in a 500cc beaker of water.

3. guides students to identify major parts of the eye and how vision occurs.

4. guides students to use a prism to show dispersion of light.

5. uses the rainbow as an example of dispersion of light by raindrops in place of prism.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. put a straight stick half way in water and state their observation.

2. observe the coin and use it to recognize apparent depth.

3. identify parts of the eye and relate vision to refraction.

4. observe colors of light separated by prism and interpret rainbow as raindrops causing dispersion.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. explain reflection and refraction.

2. describe apparent depth and state one danger of apparent depth to amateur swimmers.

3. explain how we see objects.

4. define dispersion and explain how rainbow is formed.

5. name three important parts of the eye.

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND ENERGY

###### TOPIC 3 – MAGNETIC

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

2. Cardboard sheets

3. Bar magnets

4. Iron filing

5. Compass needle

6. Pencil

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. describe loadstone as a naturally occurring magnet.

2. state laws of magnetism.

3. illustrate magnetic poles and fields.

4. explain how to care for a magnet.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

2. Laws of magnetism

3. Magnetic poles and magnetic fields

4. Care for magnets

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. tells a story about the loadstone as the earliest form of magnet.

2. leads a discussion on ‘like poles repel and unlike poles attract’.

3. guides students to identify magnetic poles and fields by using iron filing and magnetic compass.

4. provides chart or model of the ear and use it to lead students to identify parts of the ear and discuss how hearing occurs.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. describe the historical importance of loadstone.

2. Carry out an activity to verify the law of magnetism in groups of four.

3. Identify magnetic poles and fields through the activity.

4. Participate in the discussion and copy the methods.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

2. state the laws of magnetism.

3. explain how to show the magnetic fields around a magnet.

4. list two methods for caring for a magnet.

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND ENERGY

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Resource person

3. Chart showing types of radiation and their properties

4. Chart of a, ß and ? radiations and their properties

5. Chart listing dangers of radiation

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. explain the meaning of radioactivity.

3. list the three types of radiation and state their properties.

4. state the uses of radiation.

5. state the dangers in the use of radioactive rays.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

3. Types of radiation and properties

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

2. initiates discussion using a chart to name radioactive elements.

3. uses charts to show types of radiation and discusses their properties with students.

4. guides students in discussion on uses of alpha, beta and gamma radiations using charts.

5. discusses the dangers of radioactivity.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. participate in discussion and explain radioactivity.

3. identify types of radiation and describe their properties.

4. participate in the discussion and state uses of a, ß and ? radiations.

5. participate in the discussion and recognize the dangers of radiation.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

3. list the three types of radiation and state a property of each.

4. state two uses of each of radiations.

5. state three dangers of the use of a, ß and ? radiations.

BASIC SCIENCE

THEME – YOU AND ENERGY

###### TOPIC 5 – SOUND ENERGY

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Empty bottles, cans, whistle, tuning fork, strong stick etc.

2. Meter rule

3. Sketch of a dip or empty well reflecting sound (echo)

4. Chart or model of the air

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. use objects to produce sounds by making them vibrate.

2. explain the production of sound from a vibrating medium.

3. indicate how sound is reflected and identify objects that reflect sound.

4. explain how sound is heard by the ear.

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS

1. Production of sound

2. Transmission of sound

3. Reflection of sound

4. Hearing

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher,

1. provides or ask students to provide objects for production of sound e.g. tuning fork, can, empty bottles, etc.

2. guides students to use vibrating meter rule to show how sound travels.

3. guides the discussion to show that hard surfaces reflect sound (echo).

4. provides charts or model of the ear and uses it to lead students to identify parts of the ear and discuss how hearing occurs.

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

The students,

1. use objects provided to produce sound by making them vibrate.

2. in groups of four, set meter rule vibrating and observe how sound travels.

3. participate in the class discussion and recall objects you know that reflect sound.

4. identify parts of the ear and indicate how hearing occurs.

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. explain how sound is produced.

2. demonstrate how sound travels.

3. explain what echo is.

4. name three major parts of the ear.

5. explain how they hear what the teacher says in the class.