Chemistry Guides for SS 1 Chemical World

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – THE CHEMICAL WORK 

TOPIC 1 – INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Pictures of chemical industries and laboratories.

2. Posters and charts.

3.Locally available chemical industries.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define chemistry.

2. list career prospects in chemistry.

3. explain the application of chemistry.

4. describe the adverse effect of chemicals.

5. explain how scientist carry out investigation – the scientific method.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Meaning of chemistry.

2. Career prospects tied to chemistry.

3. Application (hospital, military, teaching, chemical and petrochemical industries, space science, agriculture etc.).

4. Adverse effects of chemicals, drug abuse, poisoning, corrosion, pollution.

5. Scientific method.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Defines chemistry, gives examples and illustrations.

2. Guide students to identify career prospects in chemistry.

3. Uses posters and charts to guide class discussion of application of chemistry and adverse effect on chemicals.

 

4. Take students to visit chemical industries e.g. paints, tie and dye, vegetable oil, petrocecmical industries.

5. Explain the scientific methods of enquiry using specific examples.

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Participate in the class discussion.

2. Ask and answer questions.

3. Visit chemical industries and write reports.

4. Explain each step involved in scientific method of enquiry.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. define chemistry.

2. list four (4) careers that are linked to chemistry;

3. state three(3) applications of chemistry in each of the following:

 

  • hospital
  • forensic
  • military
  • industries
  • agriculture
  • space science etc;

4. list in order the scientific method of carrying out investigations.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – THE CHEMICAL WORLD 

TOPIC 2 – CHEMICAL COMBINATION 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Blank periodic table template

2. Models

3. Charts

4. Table salt

5. sugar

6. Camphor balls

7. Some liquids e.g. oil, water

8. Aerosol

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. identify the first twenty elements of the periodic table;

2. write the electronic configuration of atoms of the first 20 elements;

3. explain the concept of atomic numbers;

4. arrange the elements on the periodic table based on their atomic numbers;

5. differentiate between various types of chemical bonding;

6. name compounds by their conventional and IUPAC names;

7. distinguish between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter;

8. discuss the kinetic theory and its applications.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Periodic table (first 20 elements only)

2. Electronic configuration of atoms

3. Types of bonds

 

a. strong bonds, e.g. electrovalent (ionic), covalent, coordinate covalent (Dative bonds); metallic bonds

b. weak bonds e.g. hydrogen bond, van-der waals forces.

4. Systems of naming compounds:

  • conventional
  • IUPAC

Any of these 2 naming systems is acceptable at this level.

5. States of matter:

  • Solid state
  • Liquid state
  • Gaseous state

6. The kinetic theory and its applications.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Guides students to,

  • identify the first twenty elements. 
  • draw the electronic configuration of these elements.
  • place these elements in their proper position on a blank periodic table template.

 

2. Explains the types of bond and their characteristics.

3. Uses simple demonstrations to illustrate the type of bond in common substances like camphor, common salt (NaCl), sulphur, etc.

4. Teaches students to write conventional and IUPAC names of common substances.

5. Initiates class discussion on:

  • state of matter
  • kinetic theory and change of state.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Write down the names and symbols of the first 20 elements.

2. Model and draw the electronic configurations of elements.

3. Complete the blank periodic table template by placing the elements in appropriate groups and periods.

4. Participate in class discussion.

5. Watch teacher demonstrations; ask and answer questions on equations.

6. Practice giving the conventional and IUPAC names of substances.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. name the first 20 elements on the periodic table;

2. draw the electronic configuration of the first twenty elements;

3. deduce the relationship between the arrangements of elements on a periodic table and their electronic configuration;

4. state the differences between electrovalent, covalent and dative bonds;

5. categorize substances based on type of bonding;

6. write conventional and IUPAC names of subatances;

7. state the postulates of the kinetic theory;

8. describe the relationship between kinetic theory and the state of substances.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – THE CHEMICAL WORLD 

TOPIC 3 – GAS LAW

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Pictures and charts

2. Piston and pump

3. Cotton wood and Ammonia solution; Conc. HCl

4. Thermometer and glass vessel etc.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. demonstrate diffussion of gases.

2. state the relationship between rate of diffusion and density of gas/vapour.

3. show how heat affects the volume of a given mass of gas.

4. explain the Kelvin Scale of temperature and its relationship to Celsius Scale.

 

5. explain the effect of pressure on the volume of a gas.

6. explain the effect of temperature and pressure on a given volume of gas.

7. show that PV = nRT is the general gas equation.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Boyle’s law

2. Charles’ law

3. General gas equation

4. Gay-Lussac’s law

5. Avogadro’s law

6. Ideal gas equation

7. Graham’s law

8. Molar volume of gases

9. Avogadro’s number and the mole concept

10. Calculations based on the gas law

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Defines Boyle’s and Charles’ laws.

2. Illustrates Boyle’s and Charles laws

3. Write the equations for both laws.

4. Performs experiments to explain the laws,

  • Effect of temperature on the volume of a gas.
  • Effect of pressure on volume of a gas.
  • Diffusion of gases e.g. Cotton wool soaked in ammonia solution and conc. HCl
  • Volume relations in gaseous reactions.

5. States the Gay-Lussac’s, Avogadro’s and Graham’s laws.

6. Solves the relevant calculations

7. Explains the relationship PV=nRT.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. State the,

(a) Boyle’s law

(b) Charles’s law

(c) Gay-Lussac’s law

(d) Avogadro’s law

(e) Graham’s law of diffusion

2. Define the molar volume of gases.

3. Watch the performed experiments.

4. Ask questions and take down notes.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

 

1. define the gas laws.

2. perform some of the experiments.

3. solve the related problems and calculations involved.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – THE CHEMICAL WORLD 

TOPIC 4 – PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Water

2. Common salt

3. Sugar

4. Candle

5. Matches

6. Models (coloured beads)

7. Calcium carbonate [Calcium trioxocarbonate (IV) (CaCO3)]

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. distinguish between physical and chemical changes.

2. distinguish between atoms and molecules.

3. describe how the particles are arranged in the atom.

4. define:

  • Atomic number
  • Mass number
  • Isotopes

5. calculate the relative atomic masses of  atoms.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Physical and chemical changes

2. Atoms and molecules

3. Dalton’s Atomic Theory

 

4. Constituents of atoms, protons, neutrons and electrons

5. Arrangement of electrons around the nucleus

6. Atomic number, mass number and isotopy

7. Relative atomic masses based on C-14 isotope.

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Demonstrate physical and chemical changes using simple examples like burning of candle, salt dissolved in water, burning of magnesium ribbon and preparation of pap (akamu) and starch.

2. To guide students to make chalk (CaCO3) as a chemical change.

3. To guide students to calculate the empirical formula from percentage composition.

4. Guide students to calculate the relative molecular mass of a compound.

 

 STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. They must be able to explain the difference between physical and chemical changes with appropriate illustrations.

2. Identify the process of chalk making as a chemical change.

3. Identify dissolution/evaporation (i.e. Salt in water) as a physical change.

4. Prepare chalk (CaCO3) as a chemic al change.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. list the difference between physical and chemical changes;

2. give examples of physical and chemical changes;

3. calculate the empirical and molecular formula of a given compound;

4. calculate the relative molecular mass of a compound;

5. draw and write the structure of the atoms;

6. state the Dalton’s atomic theory.

 

CHEMISTRY 

THEME – THE CHEMICAL WORLD 

TOPIC 5 – SYMBOLS, FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Periodic table of elements

2. Coloured beads

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. state the symbols of the first 20 elements and other common elements.

2. distinguish between elements, compounds and mixtures.

3. write chemical formula and chemical equations.

4. calculate between the empirical and molecular formulea of compound.

5. illustrate that matter is neither created nor destroyed.

6. state and illustrate the laws of constant composition and multiple proportions.

 

CONTENTS OF THE LESSON

FOCUS LESSONS 

1. Chemical symbols of elements and their valencies

2. Empirical and molecular formulae

3. Law of conversion of matter

4. Law of constant composition

5. Law of multiple proportions

6. Chemical equations

 

LESSON PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

1. Guides the students to write chemical symbols and formulae correctly.

2. Guides students to write and balance chemical equations.

3. Guides students to calculate the empirical and molecular formula of a compound.

4. Performs experiments to illustrate,

(a) conservation of mass

(b) law of constant composition.

(c) multiple proportions.

 

5. To guide students to report the experiment in the correct format:

  • Aim
  • Objective
  • Apparatus
  • Method
  • Diagram
  • Result
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion

 

STUDENT’S ACTIVITIES

1. Write the names and symbols of the first twenty (20) elements and other common elements.

2. Write and balance chemical equations.

 

3. Calculate the empirical and molecular formula of compounds.

4. Report the experiment, using the correct format.

 

LESSON EVALUATION

Students to,

1. write correct symbols of elements;

2. write correct formulae of simple binary compounds;

3. describe experiment to illustrate chemical laws;

4. report simple experiments using the correct format;

5. write and balance chemical equations.

 

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