READING TOPIC – INFORMATION
MEANING OF INFORMATION
Information is an organized and processed data that is meaningful and useful to the person who receives it.
Data is a raw fact converted into a more useful information.
Data + Meaning = Information
TYPES OF INFORMATION
There are six (6) types of information according to David B.Hertz and Albert B.Rubenstein have identified six varieties of information,
1. Conceptual information
2. Empirical information.
3. Procedural information
4. Stimulatory information
5. Policy information.
6. Directive information.
1. CONCEPTUAL INFORMATION
Conceptual information is the information based on ideas, concepts, theories, hypothesis, etc. that might be used in future or not.
2. EMPIRICAL INFORMATION
Empirical information is the information by means of observation or experimentation.
It is an information with scientific foundation.
3. PROCEDURAL INFORMATION
Procedural information is the information that allows the investigators operate more effectively.
It is related to how data are obtained, manipulated, and tested.
4. STIMULATOR INFORMATION
Stimulator information is the information that creates stimulation among people.
5. POLICY INFORMATION
Policy information is the information that depends on the decision making process.
It can be obtained from description, picture, diagram etc.
6. DESCRIPTIVE INFORMATION
Description Information is the information that provides direction.
It is also known as directive information.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
An Information Source is a source of information for somebody, i.e. anything that might informs a person about something on provide knowledge to somebody.
Information sources may be observations, people speeches, documents, pictures, organizations etc.
The sources of information are as follows:
1. RADIO AND TELEVISION
Radio and television are key sources of information that provides most real time information for on a daily basis.
Radio and television provide news about sports and games, entertainment, local and international trade, commerce, etc.
The main sources radio information are as follows:
Books cover the most virtually topics, facts, literature, business, etc.
The internet has become a significant local information source for other sources of information.
Library is an information source that provides free access for for students, researchers, scholars, journals, etc. and other print reference sources.
Newspapers provide information and general knowledge that serves as primary source of information.
Newspapers provide news about sports and games, entertainment, local and international trade, commerce, etc.
Encyclopedias are great as sources of background information such as factual entries.
It is reliable source of information because it written by different experts.
magazine is a collection of articles, images, diverse topics of popular interest and current events.
USES OF INFORMATION
The uses of data processing are as follows:
1. It is used for large amounts of data such payroll.
2. It used for small amounts of data such such money withdrawn from ATM.
3. It is used for scanning data such as barcode.
4. It is used to process large data at a time.
5. It is used for forecasting weather.
6. It is used for controlling air traffic.
7. It is used for sorting and arranging data.
8. It is used for reducing large data to its main points.
9. It used for compiling multi data.
10. It is used for summarizing computed data.
11. It is used for classifying data into different categories.
12. It is used for collecting, organizing, analysing, interpreting and presenting data.
13. It used for validating data correctly.
Answer the following questions:
1. explain the meaning of information.
2. state 5 of information.
3. mention 5 uses of information.